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Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

- BMC Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin.Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data.

Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included in the analysis, treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n = 13,664), artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 11,337) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n = 4,492). The overall parasite clearance rate was rapid. The parasite positivity rate (PPR) decreased from 59.7 % (95 % CI: 54.5-64.9) on day 1 to 6.7 % (95 % CI: 4.8-8.7) on day 2 and 0.9 % (95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) on day 3. The 95th percentile of observed day 3 PPR was 5.3 %. Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).

Conclusions: The three ACTs assessed in this analysis continue to achieve rapid early parasitological clearance across the sites assessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Probability of remaining parasitaemic (%) on days 2 and 3 for a given baseline parasitaemia in areas with different levels of transmission for children from 1 to 5 years of age. The probability of remaining positive on a given day was generated using coefficients from the final multivariable logistic regression with random effects for study sites. Zero study site effect was assumed for generating the predicted risk. The difference in risk of positivity for low/moderate setting has been given as δ and associated 95 % confidence interval presented
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Fig3: Probability of remaining parasitaemic (%) on days 2 and 3 for a given baseline parasitaemia in areas with different levels of transmission for children from 1 to 5 years of age. The probability of remaining positive on a given day was generated using coefficients from the final multivariable logistic regression with random effects for study sites. Zero study site effect was assumed for generating the predicted risk. The difference in risk of positivity for low/moderate setting has been given as δ and associated 95 % confidence interval presented

Mentions: The independent risk factors for parasite positivity were similar on days 1 and 2 (see Additional file 4: Table S6 for details on day 1 and Table 4 for day 2). After adjusting for confounding factors, patients treated with AL were at an increased risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.21 (95 % CI: 1.01–1.44), P = 0.040) compared to those treated with DP or those treated with ASAQ-FDC (AOR = 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.08–1.63), P = 0.005). Similarly, patients treated with ASAQ-loose NFDC had an increased risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 compared to DP (AOR = 1.46 (95 % CI: 1.05–2.01), P = 0.022) and compared to ASAQ-FDC (AOR = 1.61 (95 % CI: 1.14–2.29), P = 0.007). In the same multivariable model, patients from low/moderate transmission sites were also at greater risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 compared to those from high transmission sites (AOR = 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.09–3.24), P = 0.024) (Fig. 3).Table 4


Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

- BMC Med (2015)

Probability of remaining parasitaemic (%) on days 2 and 3 for a given baseline parasitaemia in areas with different levels of transmission for children from 1 to 5 years of age. The probability of remaining positive on a given day was generated using coefficients from the final multivariable logistic regression with random effects for study sites. Zero study site effect was assumed for generating the predicted risk. The difference in risk of positivity for low/moderate setting has been given as δ and associated 95 % confidence interval presented
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561425&req=5

Fig3: Probability of remaining parasitaemic (%) on days 2 and 3 for a given baseline parasitaemia in areas with different levels of transmission for children from 1 to 5 years of age. The probability of remaining positive on a given day was generated using coefficients from the final multivariable logistic regression with random effects for study sites. Zero study site effect was assumed for generating the predicted risk. The difference in risk of positivity for low/moderate setting has been given as δ and associated 95 % confidence interval presented
Mentions: The independent risk factors for parasite positivity were similar on days 1 and 2 (see Additional file 4: Table S6 for details on day 1 and Table 4 for day 2). After adjusting for confounding factors, patients treated with AL were at an increased risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.21 (95 % CI: 1.01–1.44), P = 0.040) compared to those treated with DP or those treated with ASAQ-FDC (AOR = 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.08–1.63), P = 0.005). Similarly, patients treated with ASAQ-loose NFDC had an increased risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 compared to DP (AOR = 1.46 (95 % CI: 1.05–2.01), P = 0.022) and compared to ASAQ-FDC (AOR = 1.61 (95 % CI: 1.14–2.29), P = 0.007). In the same multivariable model, patients from low/moderate transmission sites were also at greater risk of remaining parasitaemic on day 2 compared to those from high transmission sites (AOR = 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.09–3.24), P = 0.024) (Fig. 3).Table 4

Bottom Line: Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin.Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data.

Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included in the analysis, treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n = 13,664), artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 11,337) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n = 4,492). The overall parasite clearance rate was rapid. The parasite positivity rate (PPR) decreased from 59.7 % (95 % CI: 54.5-64.9) on day 1 to 6.7 % (95 % CI: 4.8-8.7) on day 2 and 0.9 % (95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) on day 3. The 95th percentile of observed day 3 PPR was 5.3 %. Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).

Conclusions: The three ACTs assessed in this analysis continue to achieve rapid early parasitological clearance across the sites assessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus