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Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

- BMC Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin.Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data.

Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included in the analysis, treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n = 13,664), artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 11,337) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n = 4,492). The overall parasite clearance rate was rapid. The parasite positivity rate (PPR) decreased from 59.7 % (95 % CI: 54.5-64.9) on day 1 to 6.7 % (95 % CI: 4.8-8.7) on day 2 and 0.9 % (95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) on day 3. The 95th percentile of observed day 3 PPR was 5.3 %. Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).

Conclusions: The three ACTs assessed in this analysis continue to achieve rapid early parasitological clearance across the sites assessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Patient flowchart. AL, artemether-lumefantrine; AS-AQ, artesunate-amodiaquine; DP, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; IPD, individual participant data
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Fig1: Patient flowchart. AL, artemether-lumefantrine; AS-AQ, artesunate-amodiaquine; DP, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; IPD, individual participant data

Mentions: The systematic literature review identified 140 published clinical studies of ACT efficacy that were potentially relevant to this analysis. Researchers agreed to share individual patient data from 71 trials (50.7 %) including 25,731 patients (59.9 % of the targeted population). Additional data were available for 3,762 patients from 13 unpublished trials. In total, individual records were available from 29,493 patients enrolled in 27 different countries between 1999 and 2012 (Fig. 1). Fourteen studies (n = 4,177) had a single arm and the remaining 70 studies had at least two ACT arms (n = 25,376). Among these, 65 studies were randomized, 14 were non-randomized and randomization status was not reported in 5 studies. AL was administered to 46 % (n = 13,664) and DP to 15 % (n = 4,492) of patients. AS-AQ was administered in three different formulations: ASAQ-FDC (17 %, n = 4,907); ASAQ-loose NFDC (13 %, n = 3,925); and ASAQ-coblistered NFDC (9 %, n = 2,505). Thirty-five studies were conducted in West Africa (n = 10,676), 31 in East Africa (n = 8,331), 4 in Central Africa (n = 609), 4 in South Africa (n = 666), and the remaining 10 studies were multi-regional (n = 9,211).Fig. 1


Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

- BMC Med (2015)

Patient flowchart. AL, artemether-lumefantrine; AS-AQ, artesunate-amodiaquine; DP, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; IPD, individual participant data
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561425&req=5

Fig1: Patient flowchart. AL, artemether-lumefantrine; AS-AQ, artesunate-amodiaquine; DP, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; IPD, individual participant data
Mentions: The systematic literature review identified 140 published clinical studies of ACT efficacy that were potentially relevant to this analysis. Researchers agreed to share individual patient data from 71 trials (50.7 %) including 25,731 patients (59.9 % of the targeted population). Additional data were available for 3,762 patients from 13 unpublished trials. In total, individual records were available from 29,493 patients enrolled in 27 different countries between 1999 and 2012 (Fig. 1). Fourteen studies (n = 4,177) had a single arm and the remaining 70 studies had at least two ACT arms (n = 25,376). Among these, 65 studies were randomized, 14 were non-randomized and randomization status was not reported in 5 studies. AL was administered to 46 % (n = 13,664) and DP to 15 % (n = 4,492) of patients. AS-AQ was administered in three different formulations: ASAQ-FDC (17 %, n = 4,907); ASAQ-loose NFDC (13 %, n = 3,925); and ASAQ-coblistered NFDC (9 %, n = 2,505). Thirty-five studies were conducted in West Africa (n = 10,676), 31 in East Africa (n = 8,331), 4 in Central Africa (n = 609), 4 in South Africa (n = 666), and the remaining 10 studies were multi-regional (n = 9,211).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin.Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in the Greater Mekong sub-region and poses a major global public health threat. Slow parasite clearance is a key clinical manifestation of reduced susceptibility to artemisinin. This study was designed to establish the baseline values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data.

Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included in the analysis, treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n = 13,664), artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 11,337) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n = 4,492). The overall parasite clearance rate was rapid. The parasite positivity rate (PPR) decreased from 59.7 % (95 % CI: 54.5-64.9) on day 1 to 6.7 % (95 % CI: 4.8-8.7) on day 2 and 0.9 % (95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) on day 3. The 95th percentile of observed day 3 PPR was 5.3 %. Independent risk factors predictive of day 3 positivity were: high baseline parasitaemia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.16 (95 % CI: 1.08-1.25); per 2-fold increase in parasite density, P <0.001); fever (>37.5 °C) (AOR = 1.50 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.13), P = 0.022); severe anaemia (AOR = 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.21-3.44), P = 0.008); areas of low/moderate transmission setting (AOR = 2.71 (95 % CI: 1.38-5.36), P = 0.004); and treatment with the loose formulation of artesunate-amodiaquine (AOR = 2.27 (95 % CI: 1.14-4.51), P = 0.020, compared to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine).

Conclusions: The three ACTs assessed in this analysis continue to achieve rapid early parasitological clearance across the sites assessed in Sub-Saharan Africa. A threshold of 5 % day 3 parasite positivity from a minimum sample size of 50 patients provides a more sensitive benchmark in Sub-Saharan Africa compared to the current recommended threshold of 10 % to trigger further investigation of artemisinin susceptibility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus