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Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment.

Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J, Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: We did not see significant associations for months 1-7.Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight.Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight.

Objectives: Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009.

Methods: Using n = 83,672 term births to mothers residing in four urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8 August-24 September 2008) compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month.

Results: Babies whose 8th month of gestation occurred during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23 g larger (95% CI: 5 g, 40 g) than babies whose 8th month occurred during the same calendar dates in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 μg/m3), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18 g (95% CI: -32 g, -3 g), 17 g (95% CI: -28 g, -6 g), 23 g (95% CI: -36 g, -10 g), and 34 g (95% CI: -70 g, 3 g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1-7.

Conclusions: Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight.

Citation: Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J, Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J. 2015. Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment. Environ Health Perspect 123:880-887; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408795.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distributions of daily mean SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations across Beijing from 8 August to 24 September 2007, 2008, and 2009. Boxes extend from the 25th to the 75th percentile, horizontal bars represent the median, whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles, squares indicate the mean, and circles represent outliers.
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f1: Distributions of daily mean SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations across Beijing from 8 August to 24 September 2007, 2008, and 2009. Boxes extend from the 25th to the 75th percentile, horizontal bars represent the median, whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles, squares indicate the mean, and circles represent outliers.

Mentions: Hypothesis 1. Characteristics of the study subjects included in hypothesis 1 analyses (n = 70,787) are shown in Table 1. Across the 3 years (2007–2009), the distributions of maternal age, gestational age at delivery, residential district, frequency of pregnancy complications, and birth weight are similar. However, maternal education level increases slightly across the 3 years (percentage of mothers with bachelor’s degree increases from 50.8% in 2007 to 60.6% in 2009). Daily PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were substantially lower in 2008 during the Olympics than during the same dates in 2007 or 2009 (Figure 1).


Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment.

Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J, Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Distributions of daily mean SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations across Beijing from 8 August to 24 September 2007, 2008, and 2009. Boxes extend from the 25th to the 75th percentile, horizontal bars represent the median, whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles, squares indicate the mean, and circles represent outliers.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559955&req=5

f1: Distributions of daily mean SO2, NO2, and PM10 concentrations across Beijing from 8 August to 24 September 2007, 2008, and 2009. Boxes extend from the 25th to the 75th percentile, horizontal bars represent the median, whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles, squares indicate the mean, and circles represent outliers.
Mentions: Hypothesis 1. Characteristics of the study subjects included in hypothesis 1 analyses (n = 70,787) are shown in Table 1. Across the 3 years (2007–2009), the distributions of maternal age, gestational age at delivery, residential district, frequency of pregnancy complications, and birth weight are similar. However, maternal education level increases slightly across the 3 years (percentage of mothers with bachelor’s degree increases from 50.8% in 2007 to 60.6% in 2009). Daily PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were substantially lower in 2008 during the Olympics than during the same dates in 2007 or 2009 (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: We did not see significant associations for months 1-7.Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight.Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight.

Objectives: Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009.

Methods: Using n = 83,672 term births to mothers residing in four urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8 August-24 September 2008) compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month.

Results: Babies whose 8th month of gestation occurred during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23 g larger (95% CI: 5 g, 40 g) than babies whose 8th month occurred during the same calendar dates in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 μg/m3), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18 g (95% CI: -32 g, -3 g), 17 g (95% CI: -28 g, -6 g), 23 g (95% CI: -36 g, -10 g), and 34 g (95% CI: -70 g, 3 g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1-7.

Conclusions: Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight.

Citation: Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J, Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J. 2015. Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment. Environ Health Perspect 123:880-887; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408795.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus