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Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study.

Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE, Brauer M - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Bottom Line: This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28).Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76).Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities.

Methods: We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation.

Results: Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76).

Conclusion: Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy.

Citation: Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE, Brauer M. 2015. Perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and atopy at 1 year of age in a multi-center Canadian birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:902-908; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408700.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Adjusted odds ratio for risk of atopy per 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposures temporally adjusted at birth address and temporally adjusted and accounting for residential mobility. (A) During pregnancy: inhalant allergens model controlled for presence of an attached garage and mold (n = 1,836); food allergens model controlled for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, household income (n = 1,913); any allergens model (n = 2,123) controlled for mother’s atopic status, and presence of furry pets. (B) During the first year of life: inhalant model (n = 2,058) controlled for presence of furry pets and any consumption of nuts since birth; food allergen analysis (n = 2,002) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, and any consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts; any allergen analysis (n = 2,173) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts.
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f1: Adjusted odds ratio for risk of atopy per 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposures temporally adjusted at birth address and temporally adjusted and accounting for residential mobility. (A) During pregnancy: inhalant allergens model controlled for presence of an attached garage and mold (n = 1,836); food allergens model controlled for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, household income (n = 1,913); any allergens model (n = 2,123) controlled for mother’s atopic status, and presence of furry pets. (B) During the first year of life: inhalant model (n = 2,058) controlled for presence of furry pets and any consumption of nuts since birth; food allergen analysis (n = 2,002) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, and any consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts; any allergen analysis (n = 2,173) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts.

Mentions: Compared with TRAP exposure estimated at the birth address with no temporal adjustment, NO2 estimates that incorporated temporal variability in ambient concentrations increased the magnitude of the effect estimates for the first year of life analysis [any allergens: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.34], yet without reaching statistical significance (see Supplemental Material, Table S6). Further, estimates of effect generally increased when temporally adjusted models further accounted for mobility (Figure 1). However, the increased spatial resolution also led to larger confidence intervals around the atopy risk estimates. During the first year of life, NO2 was associated with sensitization to any allergen tested at 1 year of age (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41) when considering temporally adjusted exposures that also accounted for residential mobility. When examining each group of allergens separately, we also found positive, but nonsignificant, associations (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47 for inhalant allergies and aOR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76 for food allergies) (Figure 1B). In contrast, during pregnancy (Figure 1A), effect estimates were for sensitization to any allergens (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22) and for sensitization to food allergens (aOR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.61). In this time window, the association between exposure and inhalant allergens atopy was nonsignificant (aOR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.61).


Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study.

Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE, Brauer M - Environ. Health Perspect. (2015)

Adjusted odds ratio for risk of atopy per 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposures temporally adjusted at birth address and temporally adjusted and accounting for residential mobility. (A) During pregnancy: inhalant allergens model controlled for presence of an attached garage and mold (n = 1,836); food allergens model controlled for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, household income (n = 1,913); any allergens model (n = 2,123) controlled for mother’s atopic status, and presence of furry pets. (B) During the first year of life: inhalant model (n = 2,058) controlled for presence of furry pets and any consumption of nuts since birth; food allergen analysis (n = 2,002) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, and any consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts; any allergen analysis (n = 2,173) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559953&req=5

f1: Adjusted odds ratio for risk of atopy per 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposures temporally adjusted at birth address and temporally adjusted and accounting for residential mobility. (A) During pregnancy: inhalant allergens model controlled for presence of an attached garage and mold (n = 1,836); food allergens model controlled for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, household income (n = 1,913); any allergens model (n = 2,123) controlled for mother’s atopic status, and presence of furry pets. (B) During the first year of life: inhalant model (n = 2,058) controlled for presence of furry pets and any consumption of nuts since birth; food allergen analysis (n = 2,002) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, and any consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts; any allergen analysis (n = 2,173) adjusted for mother’s atopic status, presence of furry pets, consumption of eggs, processed cereals, and peanuts.
Mentions: Compared with TRAP exposure estimated at the birth address with no temporal adjustment, NO2 estimates that incorporated temporal variability in ambient concentrations increased the magnitude of the effect estimates for the first year of life analysis [any allergens: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.34], yet without reaching statistical significance (see Supplemental Material, Table S6). Further, estimates of effect generally increased when temporally adjusted models further accounted for mobility (Figure 1). However, the increased spatial resolution also led to larger confidence intervals around the atopy risk estimates. During the first year of life, NO2 was associated with sensitization to any allergen tested at 1 year of age (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41) when considering temporally adjusted exposures that also accounted for residential mobility. When examining each group of allergens separately, we also found positive, but nonsignificant, associations (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47 for inhalant allergies and aOR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76 for food allergies) (Figure 1B). In contrast, during pregnancy (Figure 1A), effect estimates were for sensitization to any allergens (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22) and for sensitization to food allergens (aOR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.61). In this time window, the association between exposure and inhalant allergens atopy was nonsignificant (aOR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.61).

Bottom Line: This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28).Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76).Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities.

Methods: We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation.

Results: Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76).

Conclusion: Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy.

Citation: Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE, Brauer M. 2015. Perinatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and atopy at 1 year of age in a multi-center Canadian birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 123:902-908; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408700.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus