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Thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals.

Melero M, Rodríguez-Prieto V, Rubio-García A, García-Párraga D, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales.In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: VISAVET Center, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n., 28040, Madrid, Spain. mar.melero@sanidadanimal.info.

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring body temperature is essential in veterinary care as minor variations may indicate dysfunction. Rectal temperature is widely used as a proxy for body temperature, but measuring it requires special equipment, training or restraining, and it potentially stresses animals. Infrared thermography is an alternative that reduces handling stress, is safer for technicians and works well for untrained animals. This study analysed thermal reference points in five marine mammal species: bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas); Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens); harbour seal (Phoca vitulina); and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

Results: The thermogram analysis revealed that the internal blowhole mucosa temperature is the most reliable indicator of body temperature in cetaceans. The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales. In pinnipeds, eye temperature appears the best parameter for temperature control. In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.

Conclusions: The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pinnipeds eye temperature stabilisation and cetaceans blowhole temperature along time. Pinnipeds eye temperature for 18 min after leaving the water of one individual of each different species under study [Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)]. Cetaceans blowhole temperature during voluntary breathings measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of one individual of each evaluated specie [Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)]
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Fig2: Pinnipeds eye temperature stabilisation and cetaceans blowhole temperature along time. Pinnipeds eye temperature for 18 min after leaving the water of one individual of each different species under study [Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)]. Cetaceans blowhole temperature during voluntary breathings measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of one individual of each evaluated specie [Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)]

Mentions: Our results suggest that, in cetaceans, blowhole is superior to eyes as a thermal reference point during voluntary breathing, it obtain the lowest variance and the highest correlation with rectal temperature, and a temperature stabilisation period is not needed (Fig. 2). When thermograms were taken perpendicularly during voluntary breathing, the temperature was practically the same as the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and was only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales (Table 1).Fig. 2


Thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals.

Melero M, Rodríguez-Prieto V, Rubio-García A, García-Párraga D, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Pinnipeds eye temperature stabilisation and cetaceans blowhole temperature along time. Pinnipeds eye temperature for 18 min after leaving the water of one individual of each different species under study [Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)]. Cetaceans blowhole temperature during voluntary breathings measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of one individual of each evaluated specie [Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559927&req=5

Fig2: Pinnipeds eye temperature stabilisation and cetaceans blowhole temperature along time. Pinnipeds eye temperature for 18 min after leaving the water of one individual of each different species under study [Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens), harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)]. Cetaceans blowhole temperature during voluntary breathings measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of one individual of each evaluated specie [Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)]
Mentions: Our results suggest that, in cetaceans, blowhole is superior to eyes as a thermal reference point during voluntary breathing, it obtain the lowest variance and the highest correlation with rectal temperature, and a temperature stabilisation period is not needed (Fig. 2). When thermograms were taken perpendicularly during voluntary breathing, the temperature was practically the same as the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and was only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales (Table 1).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales.In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: VISAVET Center, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n., 28040, Madrid, Spain. mar.melero@sanidadanimal.info.

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring body temperature is essential in veterinary care as minor variations may indicate dysfunction. Rectal temperature is widely used as a proxy for body temperature, but measuring it requires special equipment, training or restraining, and it potentially stresses animals. Infrared thermography is an alternative that reduces handling stress, is safer for technicians and works well for untrained animals. This study analysed thermal reference points in five marine mammal species: bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas); Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens); harbour seal (Phoca vitulina); and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

Results: The thermogram analysis revealed that the internal blowhole mucosa temperature is the most reliable indicator of body temperature in cetaceans. The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales. In pinnipeds, eye temperature appears the best parameter for temperature control. In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.

Conclusions: The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus