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Thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals.

Melero M, Rodríguez-Prieto V, Rubio-García A, García-Párraga D, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Bottom Line: The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales.In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: VISAVET Center, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n., 28040, Madrid, Spain. mar.melero@sanidadanimal.info.

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring body temperature is essential in veterinary care as minor variations may indicate dysfunction. Rectal temperature is widely used as a proxy for body temperature, but measuring it requires special equipment, training or restraining, and it potentially stresses animals. Infrared thermography is an alternative that reduces handling stress, is safer for technicians and works well for untrained animals. This study analysed thermal reference points in five marine mammal species: bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas); Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens); harbour seal (Phoca vitulina); and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

Results: The thermogram analysis revealed that the internal blowhole mucosa temperature is the most reliable indicator of body temperature in cetaceans. The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales. In pinnipeds, eye temperature appears the best parameter for temperature control. In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.

Conclusions: The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Blowhole of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Digital (a) and thermographic (b) images of the blowhole during voluntary breathing with the thermal camera placed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the dolphin
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Fig1: Blowhole of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Digital (a) and thermographic (b) images of the blowhole during voluntary breathing with the thermal camera placed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the dolphin

Mentions: For cetaceans, the thermographs of eyes and blowholes were analysed (Table 1). Eye temperature stabilised equally rapidly (within 1 min), and a steady-state value was obtained (Table 1). The stabilisation time was shorter than in pinnipeds, probably because the anatomical and physiological differences of marine mammals’ eyes as cetaceans have well-developed vascular multivessel plexuses [30, 31]. Blowhole temperature accuracy depended on where the thermal camera was positioned in relation to the animal, and also depending on whether or not the thermal data were collected during voluntary breathing or breathing on demand. The lowest standard deviation was reached at the mean maximum blowhole temperature during voluntary breathing, when thermograms were taken perpendicularly to the surface of the blowhole opening (Fig. 1). Variation in the blowhole temperature was even greater according to whether or not animals were breathing voluntarily or on demand, irrespectively of whether animals were inspiring or exhaling (Table 1).Fig. 1


Thermal reference points as an index for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals.

Melero M, Rodríguez-Prieto V, Rubio-García A, García-Párraga D, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM - BMC Res Notes (2015)

Blowhole of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Digital (a) and thermographic (b) images of the blowhole during voluntary breathing with the thermal camera placed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the dolphin
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559927&req=5

Fig1: Blowhole of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Digital (a) and thermographic (b) images of the blowhole during voluntary breathing with the thermal camera placed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the dolphin
Mentions: For cetaceans, the thermographs of eyes and blowholes were analysed (Table 1). Eye temperature stabilised equally rapidly (within 1 min), and a steady-state value was obtained (Table 1). The stabilisation time was shorter than in pinnipeds, probably because the anatomical and physiological differences of marine mammals’ eyes as cetaceans have well-developed vascular multivessel plexuses [30, 31]. Blowhole temperature accuracy depended on where the thermal camera was positioned in relation to the animal, and also depending on whether or not the thermal data were collected during voluntary breathing or breathing on demand. The lowest standard deviation was reached at the mean maximum blowhole temperature during voluntary breathing, when thermograms were taken perpendicularly to the surface of the blowhole opening (Fig. 1). Variation in the blowhole temperature was even greater according to whether or not animals were breathing voluntarily or on demand, irrespectively of whether animals were inspiring or exhaling (Table 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales.In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: VISAVET Center, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n., 28040, Madrid, Spain. mar.melero@sanidadanimal.info.

ABSTRACT

Background: Monitoring body temperature is essential in veterinary care as minor variations may indicate dysfunction. Rectal temperature is widely used as a proxy for body temperature, but measuring it requires special equipment, training or restraining, and it potentially stresses animals. Infrared thermography is an alternative that reduces handling stress, is safer for technicians and works well for untrained animals. This study analysed thermal reference points in five marine mammal species: bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas); Patagonian sea lion (Otaria flavescens); harbour seal (Phoca vitulina); and Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

Results: The thermogram analysis revealed that the internal blowhole mucosa temperature is the most reliable indicator of body temperature in cetaceans. The temperatures taken during voluntary breathing with a camera held perpendicularly were practically identical to the rectal temperature in bottlenose dolphins and were only 1 °C lower than the rectal temperature in beluga whales. In pinnipeds, eye temperature appears the best parameter for temperature control. In these animals, the average times required for temperatures to stabilise after hauling out, and the average steady-state temperature values, differed according to species: Patagonian sea lions, 10 min, 31.13 °C; harbour seals, 10 min, 32.27 °C; Pacific walruses, 5 min, 29.93 °C.

Conclusions: The best thermographic and most stable reference points for monitoring body temperature in marine mammals are open blowhole in cetaceans and eyes in pinnipeds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus