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The rubber foot illusion.

Crea S, D'Alonzo M, Vitiello N, Cipriani C - J Neuroeng Rehabil (2015)

Bottom Line: Lower-limb amputation causes the individual a huge functional impairment due to the lack of adequate sensory perception from the missing limb.The development of an augmenting sensory feedback device able to restore some of the missing information from the amputated limb may improve embodiment, control and acceptability of the prosthesis.The results, collected from 19 healthy subjects, demonstrated that it is possible to elicit the perception of possessing a rubber foot when modality-matched stimulations are provided synchronously on the biological foot and to the corresponding rubber foot areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, viale Rinaldo Piaggio, Pontedera (PI), Italy. s.crea@sssup.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lower-limb amputation causes the individual a huge functional impairment due to the lack of adequate sensory perception from the missing limb. The development of an augmenting sensory feedback device able to restore some of the missing information from the amputated limb may improve embodiment, control and acceptability of the prosthesis.

Findings: In this work we transferred the Rubber Hand Illusion paradigm to the lower limb. We investigated the possibility of promoting body ownership of a fake foot, in a series of experiments fashioned after the RHI using matched or mismatched (vibrotactile) stimulation. The results, collected from 19 healthy subjects, demonstrated that it is possible to elicit the perception of possessing a rubber foot when modality-matched stimulations are provided synchronously on the biological foot and to the corresponding rubber foot areas. Results also proved that it is possible to enhance the illusion even with modality-mismatched stimulation, even though illusion was lower than in case of modality-matched stimulation.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the possibility of promoting a Rubber Foot Illusion with both matched and mismatched stimulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the objective measures of the embodiment. Mean values ± Standard Error of Mean across subjects. a Proprioceptive drift. b Skin conductance response (SCR). Synch. = Average of synchronous congruent and incongruent results. Asynch. = Average of asynchronous congruent and incongruent results. * indicates p<.05, ** indicates p<.01
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Fig3: Results of the objective measures of the embodiment. Mean values ± Standard Error of Mean across subjects. a Proprioceptive drift. b Skin conductance response (SCR). Synch. = Average of synchronous congruent and incongruent results. Asynch. = Average of asynchronous congruent and incongruent results. * indicates p<.05, ** indicates p<.01

Mentions: Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed no significant interaction effect between timing and modality factors (F(1,18)=.33,p=.5735) and a significant main effect of timing in the proprioceptive drift results (F(1,18)=12.45,p=.0024) (Fig.3(a)). Proprioceptive drift in congruent synchronous trial was higher than in the corresponding asynchronous trial (t-test, CS vs CA p=.0095), while no difference was found for incongruent conditions (IS vs IA p=.0511). In this case, the effect of stimulation modality was not significant and pairwise comparison was not performed.Fig. 3


The rubber foot illusion.

Crea S, D'Alonzo M, Vitiello N, Cipriani C - J Neuroeng Rehabil (2015)

Results of the objective measures of the embodiment. Mean values ± Standard Error of Mean across subjects. a Proprioceptive drift. b Skin conductance response (SCR). Synch. = Average of synchronous congruent and incongruent results. Asynch. = Average of asynchronous congruent and incongruent results. * indicates p<.05, ** indicates p<.01
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559902&req=5

Fig3: Results of the objective measures of the embodiment. Mean values ± Standard Error of Mean across subjects. a Proprioceptive drift. b Skin conductance response (SCR). Synch. = Average of synchronous congruent and incongruent results. Asynch. = Average of asynchronous congruent and incongruent results. * indicates p<.05, ** indicates p<.01
Mentions: Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed no significant interaction effect between timing and modality factors (F(1,18)=.33,p=.5735) and a significant main effect of timing in the proprioceptive drift results (F(1,18)=12.45,p=.0024) (Fig.3(a)). Proprioceptive drift in congruent synchronous trial was higher than in the corresponding asynchronous trial (t-test, CS vs CA p=.0095), while no difference was found for incongruent conditions (IS vs IA p=.0511). In this case, the effect of stimulation modality was not significant and pairwise comparison was not performed.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Lower-limb amputation causes the individual a huge functional impairment due to the lack of adequate sensory perception from the missing limb.The development of an augmenting sensory feedback device able to restore some of the missing information from the amputated limb may improve embodiment, control and acceptability of the prosthesis.The results, collected from 19 healthy subjects, demonstrated that it is possible to elicit the perception of possessing a rubber foot when modality-matched stimulations are provided synchronously on the biological foot and to the corresponding rubber foot areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, viale Rinaldo Piaggio, Pontedera (PI), Italy. s.crea@sssup.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lower-limb amputation causes the individual a huge functional impairment due to the lack of adequate sensory perception from the missing limb. The development of an augmenting sensory feedback device able to restore some of the missing information from the amputated limb may improve embodiment, control and acceptability of the prosthesis.

Findings: In this work we transferred the Rubber Hand Illusion paradigm to the lower limb. We investigated the possibility of promoting body ownership of a fake foot, in a series of experiments fashioned after the RHI using matched or mismatched (vibrotactile) stimulation. The results, collected from 19 healthy subjects, demonstrated that it is possible to elicit the perception of possessing a rubber foot when modality-matched stimulations are provided synchronously on the biological foot and to the corresponding rubber foot areas. Results also proved that it is possible to enhance the illusion even with modality-mismatched stimulation, even though illusion was lower than in case of modality-matched stimulation.

Conclusions: We demonstrated the possibility of promoting a Rubber Foot Illusion with both matched and mismatched stimulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus