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Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa.

Dirks PH, Berger LR, Roberts EM, Kramers JD, Hawks J, Randolph-Quinney PS, Elliott M, Musiba CM, Churchill SE, de Ruiter DJ, Schmid P, Backwell LR, Belyanin GA, Boshoff P, Hunter KL, Feuerriegel EM, Gurtov A, Harrison Jdu G, Hunter R, Kruger A, Morris H, Makhubela TV, Peixotto B, Tucker S - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins.Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition.Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Earth and Oceans, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

ABSTRACT
We describe the physical context of the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave, South Africa, which contains the fossils of Homo naledi. Approximately 1550 specimens of hominin remains have been recovered from at least 15 individuals, representing a small portion of the total fossil content. Macro-vertebrate fossils are exclusively H. naledi, and occur within clay-rich sediments derived from in situ weathering, and exogenous clay and silt, which entered the chamber through fractures that prevented passage of coarser-grained material. The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins. Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition. Hominins accumulated over time as older laminated mudstone units and sediment along the cave floor were eroded. Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.Clockwise from top left: (A) Photograph taken during initial exploration of the chamber; view to the N. Ellipse ‘A’ indicates the area where most of the hominid material was excavated. Letter ‘B’ shows the location of the cranial fragment that was one of the first pieces removed from the chamber. Arrows ‘C, D and E’ indicate areas of concentrated surface material. Block E is ∼ 50 cm across. (B) pre-excavation view of the chamber floor. ‘D’ and ‘E’ included hominid teeth, (intrusive) bird bones and several long bone fragments that had been ‘arranged’ on rocks by an unknown caver prior to discovery by our caving team. Top of the photograph point to the NE. Base of the photograph is 80 cm. (C) view of the primary excavation area prior to excavation looking in a NE direction. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale (D) the excavation area at the end of the first round of excavations looking in a SSE direction (November 2013). Ellipse A is the same as in previous figures. Arrow B shows the fragment of a long bone that was uncovered after the cranial fragment had been removed. Arrows C, D and E indicate where surface concentrations had previously been. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.008
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fig6: Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.Clockwise from top left: (A) Photograph taken during initial exploration of the chamber; view to the N. Ellipse ‘A’ indicates the area where most of the hominid material was excavated. Letter ‘B’ shows the location of the cranial fragment that was one of the first pieces removed from the chamber. Arrows ‘C, D and E’ indicate areas of concentrated surface material. Block E is ∼ 50 cm across. (B) pre-excavation view of the chamber floor. ‘D’ and ‘E’ included hominid teeth, (intrusive) bird bones and several long bone fragments that had been ‘arranged’ on rocks by an unknown caver prior to discovery by our caving team. Top of the photograph point to the NE. Base of the photograph is 80 cm. (C) view of the primary excavation area prior to excavation looking in a NE direction. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale (D) the excavation area at the end of the first round of excavations looking in a SSE direction (November 2013). Ellipse A is the same as in previous figures. Arrow B shows the fragment of a long bone that was uncovered after the cranial fragment had been removed. Arrows C, D and E indicate where surface concentrations had previously been. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.008

Mentions: Upon initial discovery of the Dinaledi Chamber, Unit 3 contained dozens of hominin bones exposed along its surface and partially buried within it, in most portions of the chamber where Unit 3 has formed (Figure 6). A series of minor test pits (a few cm deep) were dug into Unit 3 at various areas of the cave floor, which revealed that abundant additional hominin bones are buried at shallow depths within Unit 3 throughout much of the chamber. The abundance and density of H. naledi bones in the chamber is demonstrated in the single excavation, where most (1250 out of 1550 elements) of the fossil material documented from the Dinaledi Chamber was collected (Figure 7). Unit 3 also contains rare disarticulated rodent remains that are undiagnostic of age, and that are possibly derived as an erosional product from Unit 1 (Facies 1b) or that were deposited directly into Unit 3 as it accumulated.10.7554/eLife.09561.008Figure 6.Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.


Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa.

Dirks PH, Berger LR, Roberts EM, Kramers JD, Hawks J, Randolph-Quinney PS, Elliott M, Musiba CM, Churchill SE, de Ruiter DJ, Schmid P, Backwell LR, Belyanin GA, Boshoff P, Hunter KL, Feuerriegel EM, Gurtov A, Harrison Jdu G, Hunter R, Kruger A, Morris H, Makhubela TV, Peixotto B, Tucker S - Elife (2015)

Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.Clockwise from top left: (A) Photograph taken during initial exploration of the chamber; view to the N. Ellipse ‘A’ indicates the area where most of the hominid material was excavated. Letter ‘B’ shows the location of the cranial fragment that was one of the first pieces removed from the chamber. Arrows ‘C, D and E’ indicate areas of concentrated surface material. Block E is ∼ 50 cm across. (B) pre-excavation view of the chamber floor. ‘D’ and ‘E’ included hominid teeth, (intrusive) bird bones and several long bone fragments that had been ‘arranged’ on rocks by an unknown caver prior to discovery by our caving team. Top of the photograph point to the NE. Base of the photograph is 80 cm. (C) view of the primary excavation area prior to excavation looking in a NE direction. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale (D) the excavation area at the end of the first round of excavations looking in a SSE direction (November 2013). Ellipse A is the same as in previous figures. Arrow B shows the fragment of a long bone that was uncovered after the cranial fragment had been removed. Arrows C, D and E indicate where surface concentrations had previously been. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.008
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559842&req=5

fig6: Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.Clockwise from top left: (A) Photograph taken during initial exploration of the chamber; view to the N. Ellipse ‘A’ indicates the area where most of the hominid material was excavated. Letter ‘B’ shows the location of the cranial fragment that was one of the first pieces removed from the chamber. Arrows ‘C, D and E’ indicate areas of concentrated surface material. Block E is ∼ 50 cm across. (B) pre-excavation view of the chamber floor. ‘D’ and ‘E’ included hominid teeth, (intrusive) bird bones and several long bone fragments that had been ‘arranged’ on rocks by an unknown caver prior to discovery by our caving team. Top of the photograph point to the NE. Base of the photograph is 80 cm. (C) view of the primary excavation area prior to excavation looking in a NE direction. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale (D) the excavation area at the end of the first round of excavations looking in a SSE direction (November 2013). Ellipse A is the same as in previous figures. Arrow B shows the fragment of a long bone that was uncovered after the cranial fragment had been removed. Arrows C, D and E indicate where surface concentrations had previously been. The diameter of the ellipse is 1 m for scale.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.008
Mentions: Upon initial discovery of the Dinaledi Chamber, Unit 3 contained dozens of hominin bones exposed along its surface and partially buried within it, in most portions of the chamber where Unit 3 has formed (Figure 6). A series of minor test pits (a few cm deep) were dug into Unit 3 at various areas of the cave floor, which revealed that abundant additional hominin bones are buried at shallow depths within Unit 3 throughout much of the chamber. The abundance and density of H. naledi bones in the chamber is demonstrated in the single excavation, where most (1250 out of 1550 elements) of the fossil material documented from the Dinaledi Chamber was collected (Figure 7). Unit 3 also contains rare disarticulated rodent remains that are undiagnostic of age, and that are possibly derived as an erosional product from Unit 1 (Facies 1b) or that were deposited directly into Unit 3 as it accumulated.10.7554/eLife.09561.008Figure 6.Views of the Dinaledi Chamber.

Bottom Line: The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins.Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition.Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Earth and Oceans, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

ABSTRACT
We describe the physical context of the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave, South Africa, which contains the fossils of Homo naledi. Approximately 1550 specimens of hominin remains have been recovered from at least 15 individuals, representing a small portion of the total fossil content. Macro-vertebrate fossils are exclusively H. naledi, and occur within clay-rich sediments derived from in situ weathering, and exogenous clay and silt, which entered the chamber through fractures that prevented passage of coarser-grained material. The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins. Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition. Hominins accumulated over time as older laminated mudstone units and sediment along the cave floor were eroded. Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus