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Electrophysiological evidences demonstrating differences in brain functions between nonmusicians and musicians.

Zhang L, Peng W, Chen J, Hu L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare.We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system.Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education) and School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-term music training can improve sensorimotor skills, as playing a musical instrument requires the functional integration of information related to multimodal sensory perception and motor execution. This functional integration often leads to functional reorganization of cerebral cortices, including auditory, visual, and motor areas. Moreover, music appreciation can modulate emotions (e.g., stress relief), and long-term music training can enhance a musician's self-control and self-evaluation ability. Therefore, the neural processing of music can also be related to certain higher brain cognitive functions. However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare. Here, we aimed to comprehensively explore the neural changes induced by long-term music training by assessing the differences of transient and quasi-steady-state auditory-evoked potentials between nonmusicians and musicians. We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system. Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

No MeSH data available.


Quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli.The quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli, presented at a comfortable listening level (~80 dB SPL) through binaural earphones, consisted of trains of 1 ms monotone pulses (101 pulses for each train, i.e., P1, P2, …, P101). Two types of train, i.e., descending train and ascending train, are respectively marked in blue and red. In the descending train, the inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), which were changed from 10 ms to 1000 ms, were 1000/100 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/99 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/98 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/1 ms between P100 and P101. In this case, the stimulus frequencies were 100, 99, 98, …, 1 Hz for the consecutive pulses. In the ascending train, the IPIs, which were changed from 1000 ms to 10 ms, were 1000/1 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/2 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/3 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/100 ms between P100 and P101. The stimulus frequencies were 1, 2, 3, …, 100 Hz for the consecutive pulses in this type of train.
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f1: Quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli.The quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli, presented at a comfortable listening level (~80 dB SPL) through binaural earphones, consisted of trains of 1 ms monotone pulses (101 pulses for each train, i.e., P1, P2, …, P101). Two types of train, i.e., descending train and ascending train, are respectively marked in blue and red. In the descending train, the inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), which were changed from 10 ms to 1000 ms, were 1000/100 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/99 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/98 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/1 ms between P100 and P101. In this case, the stimulus frequencies were 100, 99, 98, …, 1 Hz for the consecutive pulses. In the ascending train, the IPIs, which were changed from 1000 ms to 10 ms, were 1000/1 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/2 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/3 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/100 ms between P100 and P101. The stimulus frequencies were 1, 2, 3, …, 100 Hz for the consecutive pulses in this type of train.

Mentions: Thus, we aimed to test the hypothesis that long-term music training could not only enhance the auditory information processing, but also modulate the higher cognitive functions (i.e., “top-down” cognitive control). Since it has been widely suggested that auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) contain neural responses to index both the auditory information processing (e.g., steady-state responses17) and the higher cognitive information processing (e.g., low-frequency vertex potentials18192021), this hypothesis was assessed by comparing AEPs, evoked by transient and a modified version of steady-state auditory stimuli (Fig. 1), between nonmusicians and musicians (n = 14 for each group).


Electrophysiological evidences demonstrating differences in brain functions between nonmusicians and musicians.

Zhang L, Peng W, Chen J, Hu L - Sci Rep (2015)

Quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli.The quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli, presented at a comfortable listening level (~80 dB SPL) through binaural earphones, consisted of trains of 1 ms monotone pulses (101 pulses for each train, i.e., P1, P2, …, P101). Two types of train, i.e., descending train and ascending train, are respectively marked in blue and red. In the descending train, the inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), which were changed from 10 ms to 1000 ms, were 1000/100 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/99 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/98 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/1 ms between P100 and P101. In this case, the stimulus frequencies were 100, 99, 98, …, 1 Hz for the consecutive pulses. In the ascending train, the IPIs, which were changed from 1000 ms to 10 ms, were 1000/1 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/2 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/3 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/100 ms between P100 and P101. The stimulus frequencies were 1, 2, 3, …, 100 Hz for the consecutive pulses in this type of train.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559803&req=5

f1: Quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli.The quasi-steady-state auditory stimuli, presented at a comfortable listening level (~80 dB SPL) through binaural earphones, consisted of trains of 1 ms monotone pulses (101 pulses for each train, i.e., P1, P2, …, P101). Two types of train, i.e., descending train and ascending train, are respectively marked in blue and red. In the descending train, the inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), which were changed from 10 ms to 1000 ms, were 1000/100 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/99 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/98 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/1 ms between P100 and P101. In this case, the stimulus frequencies were 100, 99, 98, …, 1 Hz for the consecutive pulses. In the ascending train, the IPIs, which were changed from 1000 ms to 10 ms, were 1000/1 ms between P1 and P2, 1000/2 ms between P2 and P3, 1000/3 ms between P3 and P4, …, 1000/100 ms between P100 and P101. The stimulus frequencies were 1, 2, 3, …, 100 Hz for the consecutive pulses in this type of train.
Mentions: Thus, we aimed to test the hypothesis that long-term music training could not only enhance the auditory information processing, but also modulate the higher cognitive functions (i.e., “top-down” cognitive control). Since it has been widely suggested that auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) contain neural responses to index both the auditory information processing (e.g., steady-state responses17) and the higher cognitive information processing (e.g., low-frequency vertex potentials18192021), this hypothesis was assessed by comparing AEPs, evoked by transient and a modified version of steady-state auditory stimuli (Fig. 1), between nonmusicians and musicians (n = 14 for each group).

Bottom Line: However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare.We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system.Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education) and School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

ABSTRACT
Long-term music training can improve sensorimotor skills, as playing a musical instrument requires the functional integration of information related to multimodal sensory perception and motor execution. This functional integration often leads to functional reorganization of cerebral cortices, including auditory, visual, and motor areas. Moreover, music appreciation can modulate emotions (e.g., stress relief), and long-term music training can enhance a musician's self-control and self-evaluation ability. Therefore, the neural processing of music can also be related to certain higher brain cognitive functions. However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare. Here, we aimed to comprehensively explore the neural changes induced by long-term music training by assessing the differences of transient and quasi-steady-state auditory-evoked potentials between nonmusicians and musicians. We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system. Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

No MeSH data available.