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Studies of pesticide residues in tomatoes and cucumbers from Kazakhstan and the associated health risks.

Lozowicka B, Abzeitova E, Sagitov A, Kaczynski P, Toleubayev K, Li A - Environ Monit Assess (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated that more than half of samples (59 %) contained 29 pesticides, in which 10 are not registered in Kazakhstan, ranging from 0.01 to 0.88 mg kg(-1), and 28 % contained pesticide residues above maximum residue levels (MRLs).The most critical commodity is triazophos and flusilazole in tomatoes, contributing 70.8 and 42.5 % to the acute hazard index (aHI).These results also show that the detected pesticides may be considered a public health problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Chełmonskiego 22 Str, 15195, Bialystok, Poland, B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in vegetables in the Almaty Region of Kazakhstan and to determine the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. A total of 82 samples of cucumbers and tomatoes from top agro-based market and greenhouses were analysed using a gas chromatography-micro electron capture detector/nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC-μECD/NPD), a multiresidue method to analyse 184 different pesticide types. The results indicated that more than half of samples (59 %) contained 29 pesticides, in which 10 are not registered in Kazakhstan, ranging from 0.01 to 0.88 mg kg(-1), and 28 % contained pesticide residues above maximum residue levels (MRLs). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) ranged from 0.01 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pyrimethanil to 12.05 % of the ADI for lambda-cyhalothrin. The most critical commodity is triazophos and flusilazole in tomatoes, contributing 70.8 and 42.5 % to the acute hazard index (aHI). The results provided important information on the current pesticide contamination status of two commonly consumed vegetables and pointed an urgent need to control the use of plant protection products applied, especially potentially persistent pesticides, such as endosulfan and dicofol. These results also show that the detected pesticides may be considered a public health problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Multiresidue samples
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig4: Multiresidue samples

Mentions: Tomatoes and cucumbers are highly sensitive to pests and may therefore require multiple successive applications of pesticide and, consequently, may contained more than one residue. Among the tested vegetables, samples containing one substance (29 %) and multiple active substances (30 %; from two to nine residues) were noted (Fig. 4). Those multiple residues were found most frequently in tomatoes. The most commonly detected residues were a combination of two (acetamiprid and chlorothalonil, endosulfan and tebuconazole, and metalaxyl and chlorothalonil) and three pesticides (acetamiprid, chlorothalonil and fluopicolide, and triadimefon, triadimenol and tebuconazole) (23 %). Six pesticide residues, including the alpha, beta and sulfate of endosulfan; acetamiprid; lambda-cyhalothrin; and tebuconazole, were detected in one sample. One sample of tomato contained nine pesticide residues, and among them, four fungicides (azoxystrobin, metalaxyl, flusilazole and triadimefon) had a range of 0.02–0.15 mg kg−1 and three insecticides (endosulfan (sum of 0.06 mg kg−1), buprofezin and etoxazole) had a mean concentration of 0.6 mg kg−1. These samples with multiresidue pesticides carry a higher risk to the health of consumers (Fig. 5).Fig. 4


Studies of pesticide residues in tomatoes and cucumbers from Kazakhstan and the associated health risks.

Lozowicka B, Abzeitova E, Sagitov A, Kaczynski P, Toleubayev K, Li A - Environ Monit Assess (2015)

Multiresidue samples
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4559566&req=5

Fig4: Multiresidue samples
Mentions: Tomatoes and cucumbers are highly sensitive to pests and may therefore require multiple successive applications of pesticide and, consequently, may contained more than one residue. Among the tested vegetables, samples containing one substance (29 %) and multiple active substances (30 %; from two to nine residues) were noted (Fig. 4). Those multiple residues were found most frequently in tomatoes. The most commonly detected residues were a combination of two (acetamiprid and chlorothalonil, endosulfan and tebuconazole, and metalaxyl and chlorothalonil) and three pesticides (acetamiprid, chlorothalonil and fluopicolide, and triadimefon, triadimenol and tebuconazole) (23 %). Six pesticide residues, including the alpha, beta and sulfate of endosulfan; acetamiprid; lambda-cyhalothrin; and tebuconazole, were detected in one sample. One sample of tomato contained nine pesticide residues, and among them, four fungicides (azoxystrobin, metalaxyl, flusilazole and triadimefon) had a range of 0.02–0.15 mg kg−1 and three insecticides (endosulfan (sum of 0.06 mg kg−1), buprofezin and etoxazole) had a mean concentration of 0.6 mg kg−1. These samples with multiresidue pesticides carry a higher risk to the health of consumers (Fig. 5).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: The results indicated that more than half of samples (59 %) contained 29 pesticides, in which 10 are not registered in Kazakhstan, ranging from 0.01 to 0.88 mg kg(-1), and 28 % contained pesticide residues above maximum residue levels (MRLs).The most critical commodity is triazophos and flusilazole in tomatoes, contributing 70.8 and 42.5 % to the acute hazard index (aHI).These results also show that the detected pesticides may be considered a public health problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Chełmonskiego 22 Str, 15195, Bialystok, Poland, B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in vegetables in the Almaty Region of Kazakhstan and to determine the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. A total of 82 samples of cucumbers and tomatoes from top agro-based market and greenhouses were analysed using a gas chromatography-micro electron capture detector/nitrogen-phosphorous detector (GC-μECD/NPD), a multiresidue method to analyse 184 different pesticide types. The results indicated that more than half of samples (59 %) contained 29 pesticides, in which 10 are not registered in Kazakhstan, ranging from 0.01 to 0.88 mg kg(-1), and 28 % contained pesticide residues above maximum residue levels (MRLs). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) ranged from 0.01 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for pyrimethanil to 12.05 % of the ADI for lambda-cyhalothrin. The most critical commodity is triazophos and flusilazole in tomatoes, contributing 70.8 and 42.5 % to the acute hazard index (aHI). The results provided important information on the current pesticide contamination status of two commonly consumed vegetables and pointed an urgent need to control the use of plant protection products applied, especially potentially persistent pesticides, such as endosulfan and dicofol. These results also show that the detected pesticides may be considered a public health problem.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus