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A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: phylogenetic and paleobiological implications.

Blanco A, Fortuny J, Vicente A, Luján ÀH, García-Marçà JA, Sellés AG - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Discussion.Further, the large cranial cavities could help to reduce the weight of the cranium.The myological study performed on the anterior limb elements supports this interpretation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona , Sabadell, Catalonia , Spain.

ABSTRACT
Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain) in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm. (early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous) offers a unique opportunity to deepen in the phylogenetic relationships of the group and its ecological features. Methods. The specimen is described in detail, and CT scan of the skull is performed in order to study the endocranial morphology as well as paratympanic sinuses configuration. In addition, myological and phylogenetic analyses are also carried out on the specimen for to shed light in ecological and phylogenetic issues, respectively. Results. The specimen described herein represents a new species, Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov., closely related to the Romanian A. precedens. The CT scan of the skull revealed an unexpected paratympanic sinuses configuration. Allosaposuchus hulki exhibits an "anterodorsal tympanic sinus" not observed in any other extant or extinct crocodilian. The caudal tympanic recesses are extremely enlarged, and the expanded quadratic sinus seems to be connected to the middle-ear channel. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the emplacement of the informal taxonomic group 'Allodaposuchia' at the base of Crocodylia, being considered the sister group of Borealosuchus and Planocraniidae. Discussion. Although this is a preliminary hypothesis, the unique paratympanic configuration displayed by A. hulki suggests that it could possess a high-specialized auditory system. Further, the large cranial cavities could help to reduce the weight of the cranium. Concerning the postcranial skeleton, Allodaposuchus hulki shows massive and robust vertebrae and forelimb bones, suggesting it could have a bulky body. The myological study performed on the anterior limb elements supports this interpretation. In addition, several bone and muscular features seem to point at a semi-erected position of the forelimbs during terrestrial locomotion. Taking all the above results into consideration, it seems plausible to suggest that A. hulki could conduct large incursions out of the water and have a semi-terrestrial lifestyle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Axial elements of Allodaposuchus hulki and interpretative diagrams.Anterior dorsal vertebra (MCD5131) in (A) anterior, (B) posterior, (C) dorsal, and (D) left lateral view; first lumbar vertebra (MCD5136) in (E) anterior, (F) posterior, (G) dorsal, and (H) left lateral view; second lumbar vertebra (MCD4769) in (I) anterior, (J) posterior, (K) dorsal, and (L) left lateral view; third lumbar vertebra (MCD5126) in (M) anterior, (N) posterior, (O) dorsal, and (P) left lateral view. Abbreviations: aas, anterior articular surface; di, diapophysis; fo, foramen; hy, hypapophysis; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; par, parapophysis; poc, posterior condyle; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; psf, postspinal fossa.
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fig-6: Axial elements of Allodaposuchus hulki and interpretative diagrams.Anterior dorsal vertebra (MCD5131) in (A) anterior, (B) posterior, (C) dorsal, and (D) left lateral view; first lumbar vertebra (MCD5136) in (E) anterior, (F) posterior, (G) dorsal, and (H) left lateral view; second lumbar vertebra (MCD4769) in (I) anterior, (J) posterior, (K) dorsal, and (L) left lateral view; third lumbar vertebra (MCD5126) in (M) anterior, (N) posterior, (O) dorsal, and (P) left lateral view. Abbreviations: aas, anterior articular surface; di, diapophysis; fo, foramen; hy, hypapophysis; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; par, parapophysis; poc, posterior condyle; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; psf, postspinal fossa.

Mentions: The recovered material was found in a 2 m2-area (Fig. 1C) including both cranial and postcranial elements (Figs. 2–6). Because no duplication of bones existed, and bones are connected or coherent in size, we consider the specimen to be a single individual. The skull is represented by the left premaxilla, a fragment of the right dentary, the right jugal and quadratojugal, most of the skull-table, and a damaged fragment of the jaw. The postcranial skeleton is also preserved and includes a right scapula, a fragmentary right humerus, a complete right ulna, a right dorsal rib, a proximal part of an indeterminate rib, an anterior dorsal vertebra and three lumbar vertebrae.


A new species of Allodaposuchus (Eusuchia, Crocodylia) from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Spain: phylogenetic and paleobiological implications.

Blanco A, Fortuny J, Vicente A, Luján ÀH, García-Marçà JA, Sellés AG - PeerJ (2015)

Axial elements of Allodaposuchus hulki and interpretative diagrams.Anterior dorsal vertebra (MCD5131) in (A) anterior, (B) posterior, (C) dorsal, and (D) left lateral view; first lumbar vertebra (MCD5136) in (E) anterior, (F) posterior, (G) dorsal, and (H) left lateral view; second lumbar vertebra (MCD4769) in (I) anterior, (J) posterior, (K) dorsal, and (L) left lateral view; third lumbar vertebra (MCD5126) in (M) anterior, (N) posterior, (O) dorsal, and (P) left lateral view. Abbreviations: aas, anterior articular surface; di, diapophysis; fo, foramen; hy, hypapophysis; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; par, parapophysis; poc, posterior condyle; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; psf, postspinal fossa.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4558081&req=5

fig-6: Axial elements of Allodaposuchus hulki and interpretative diagrams.Anterior dorsal vertebra (MCD5131) in (A) anterior, (B) posterior, (C) dorsal, and (D) left lateral view; first lumbar vertebra (MCD5136) in (E) anterior, (F) posterior, (G) dorsal, and (H) left lateral view; second lumbar vertebra (MCD4769) in (I) anterior, (J) posterior, (K) dorsal, and (L) left lateral view; third lumbar vertebra (MCD5126) in (M) anterior, (N) posterior, (O) dorsal, and (P) left lateral view. Abbreviations: aas, anterior articular surface; di, diapophysis; fo, foramen; hy, hypapophysis; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; par, parapophysis; poc, posterior condyle; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; psf, postspinal fossa.
Mentions: The recovered material was found in a 2 m2-area (Fig. 1C) including both cranial and postcranial elements (Figs. 2–6). Because no duplication of bones existed, and bones are connected or coherent in size, we consider the specimen to be a single individual. The skull is represented by the left premaxilla, a fragment of the right dentary, the right jugal and quadratojugal, most of the skull-table, and a damaged fragment of the jaw. The postcranial skeleton is also preserved and includes a right scapula, a fragmentary right humerus, a complete right ulna, a right dorsal rib, a proximal part of an indeterminate rib, an anterior dorsal vertebra and three lumbar vertebrae.

Bottom Line: Discussion.Further, the large cranial cavities could help to reduce the weight of the cranium.The myological study performed on the anterior limb elements supports this interpretation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona , Sabadell, Catalonia , Spain.

ABSTRACT
Background. The Late Cretaceous is a keystone period to understand the origin and early radiation of Crocodylia, the group containing all extant lineages of crocodilians. Among the taxa described from the latest Cretaceous of Europe, the genus Allodaposuchus is one of the most common but also one of the most controversial. However, because of its fragmentary record, several issues regarding its phylogenetic emplacement and its ecology remain unsolved or unknown. The discovery of a single specimen attributed to Allodaposuchus, represented by both cranial and postcranial remains, from the Casa Fabà site (Tremp Basin, NE Spain) in the lower red unit of the Tremp Fm. (early Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous) offers a unique opportunity to deepen in the phylogenetic relationships of the group and its ecological features. Methods. The specimen is described in detail, and CT scan of the skull is performed in order to study the endocranial morphology as well as paratympanic sinuses configuration. In addition, myological and phylogenetic analyses are also carried out on the specimen for to shed light in ecological and phylogenetic issues, respectively. Results. The specimen described herein represents a new species, Allodaposuchus hulki sp. nov., closely related to the Romanian A. precedens. The CT scan of the skull revealed an unexpected paratympanic sinuses configuration. Allosaposuchus hulki exhibits an "anterodorsal tympanic sinus" not observed in any other extant or extinct crocodilian. The caudal tympanic recesses are extremely enlarged, and the expanded quadratic sinus seems to be connected to the middle-ear channel. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the emplacement of the informal taxonomic group 'Allodaposuchia' at the base of Crocodylia, being considered the sister group of Borealosuchus and Planocraniidae. Discussion. Although this is a preliminary hypothesis, the unique paratympanic configuration displayed by A. hulki suggests that it could possess a high-specialized auditory system. Further, the large cranial cavities could help to reduce the weight of the cranium. Concerning the postcranial skeleton, Allodaposuchus hulki shows massive and robust vertebrae and forelimb bones, suggesting it could have a bulky body. The myological study performed on the anterior limb elements supports this interpretation. In addition, several bone and muscular features seem to point at a semi-erected position of the forelimbs during terrestrial locomotion. Taking all the above results into consideration, it seems plausible to suggest that A. hulki could conduct large incursions out of the water and have a semi-terrestrial lifestyle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus