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Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data.

Kushniarevich A, Utevska O, Chuhryaeva M, Agdzhoyan A, Dibirova K, Uktveryte I, Möls M, Mulahasanovic L, Pshenichnov A, Frolova S, Shanko A, Metspalu E, Reidla M, Tambets K, Tamm E, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Atramentova L, Kučinskas V, Davydenko O, Goncharova O, Evseeva I, Churnosov M, Pocheshchova E, Yunusbayev B, Khusnutdinova E, Marjanović D, Rudan P, Rootsi S, Yankovsky N, Endicott P, Kassian A, Dybo A, Genographic ConsortiumTyler-Smith C, Balanovska E, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R, Balanovsky O - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The Slavic branch of the Balto-Slavic sub-family of Indo-European languages underwent rapid divergence as a result of the spatial expansion of its speakers from Central-East Europe, in early medieval times.This expansion-mainly to East Europe and the northern Balkans-resulted in the incorporation of genetic components from numerous autochthonous populations into the Slavic gene pools.A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry or a modest gene flow between those two groups, which might derive from the historic spread of Slavic people.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia; Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus.

ABSTRACT
The Slavic branch of the Balto-Slavic sub-family of Indo-European languages underwent rapid divergence as a result of the spatial expansion of its speakers from Central-East Europe, in early medieval times. This expansion-mainly to East Europe and the northern Balkans-resulted in the incorporation of genetic components from numerous autochthonous populations into the Slavic gene pools. Here, we characterize genetic variation in all extant ethnic groups speaking Balto-Slavic languages by analyzing mitochondrial DNA (n = 6,876), Y-chromosomes (n = 6,079) and genome-wide SNP profiles (n = 296), within the context of other European populations. We also reassess the phylogeny of Slavic languages within the Balto-Slavic branch of Indo-European. We find that genetic distances among Balto-Slavic populations, based on autosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, show a high correlation (0.9) both with each other and with geography, but a slightly lower correlation (0.7) with mitochondrial DNA and linguistic affiliation. The data suggest that genetic diversity of the present-day Slavs was predominantly shaped in situ, and we detect two different substrata: 'central-east European' for West and East Slavs, and 'south-east European' for South Slavs. A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry or a modest gene flow between those two groups, which might derive from the historic spread of Slavic people.

No MeSH data available.


ADMIXTURE plot (k = 6).Ancestry proportions of 1,194 individuals as revealed by ADMIXTURE.
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pone.0135820.g003: ADMIXTURE plot (k = 6).Ancestry proportions of 1,194 individuals as revealed by ADMIXTURE.

Mentions: Using the clustering algorithm implemented in ADMIXTURE [51], we modeled ancestral genetic components in Balto-Slavic populations. Assuming six ancestral populations (K = 6) (see S1 Text: Methods for choosing a best K), Balto-Slavic speakers bear membership almost exclusively from two ancestral components: the dark blue (k3) and the light blue (k2), albeit in different proportions (Fig 3). k3 is omnipresent throughout European populations and decreases from north-eastern Europeans southwards. Thus, k3 peaks in Baltic speakers and prevails in East Slavs (80–95%) and decreases notably in South Slavs (55–70%). In contrast, k2 is abundant around the Mediterranean and in the Caucasus region and decreases among Europeans when moving northward. Accordingly, it makes up nearly 30% of ancestral proportions in South Slavs, decreases to around 20% in West and East Slavs and drops to around 5% in North Russians and Baltic speakers (Fig 3). The further division of the two major components (k3 and k2) in the Balto-Slavic populations at higher values of K indicates more complex structuring of genomes of South Slavs as compared to West and East Slavs (S2 Fig).


Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data.

Kushniarevich A, Utevska O, Chuhryaeva M, Agdzhoyan A, Dibirova K, Uktveryte I, Möls M, Mulahasanovic L, Pshenichnov A, Frolova S, Shanko A, Metspalu E, Reidla M, Tambets K, Tamm E, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Atramentova L, Kučinskas V, Davydenko O, Goncharova O, Evseeva I, Churnosov M, Pocheshchova E, Yunusbayev B, Khusnutdinova E, Marjanović D, Rudan P, Rootsi S, Yankovsky N, Endicott P, Kassian A, Dybo A, Genographic ConsortiumTyler-Smith C, Balanovska E, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R, Balanovsky O - PLoS ONE (2015)

ADMIXTURE plot (k = 6).Ancestry proportions of 1,194 individuals as revealed by ADMIXTURE.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4558026&req=5

pone.0135820.g003: ADMIXTURE plot (k = 6).Ancestry proportions of 1,194 individuals as revealed by ADMIXTURE.
Mentions: Using the clustering algorithm implemented in ADMIXTURE [51], we modeled ancestral genetic components in Balto-Slavic populations. Assuming six ancestral populations (K = 6) (see S1 Text: Methods for choosing a best K), Balto-Slavic speakers bear membership almost exclusively from two ancestral components: the dark blue (k3) and the light blue (k2), albeit in different proportions (Fig 3). k3 is omnipresent throughout European populations and decreases from north-eastern Europeans southwards. Thus, k3 peaks in Baltic speakers and prevails in East Slavs (80–95%) and decreases notably in South Slavs (55–70%). In contrast, k2 is abundant around the Mediterranean and in the Caucasus region and decreases among Europeans when moving northward. Accordingly, it makes up nearly 30% of ancestral proportions in South Slavs, decreases to around 20% in West and East Slavs and drops to around 5% in North Russians and Baltic speakers (Fig 3). The further division of the two major components (k3 and k2) in the Balto-Slavic populations at higher values of K indicates more complex structuring of genomes of South Slavs as compared to West and East Slavs (S2 Fig).

Bottom Line: The Slavic branch of the Balto-Slavic sub-family of Indo-European languages underwent rapid divergence as a result of the spatial expansion of its speakers from Central-East Europe, in early medieval times.This expansion-mainly to East Europe and the northern Balkans-resulted in the incorporation of genetic components from numerous autochthonous populations into the Slavic gene pools.A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry or a modest gene flow between those two groups, which might derive from the historic spread of Slavic people.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia; Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus.

ABSTRACT
The Slavic branch of the Balto-Slavic sub-family of Indo-European languages underwent rapid divergence as a result of the spatial expansion of its speakers from Central-East Europe, in early medieval times. This expansion-mainly to East Europe and the northern Balkans-resulted in the incorporation of genetic components from numerous autochthonous populations into the Slavic gene pools. Here, we characterize genetic variation in all extant ethnic groups speaking Balto-Slavic languages by analyzing mitochondrial DNA (n = 6,876), Y-chromosomes (n = 6,079) and genome-wide SNP profiles (n = 296), within the context of other European populations. We also reassess the phylogeny of Slavic languages within the Balto-Slavic branch of Indo-European. We find that genetic distances among Balto-Slavic populations, based on autosomal and Y-chromosomal loci, show a high correlation (0.9) both with each other and with geography, but a slightly lower correlation (0.7) with mitochondrial DNA and linguistic affiliation. The data suggest that genetic diversity of the present-day Slavs was predominantly shaped in situ, and we detect two different substrata: 'central-east European' for West and East Slavs, and 'south-east European' for South Slavs. A pattern of distribution of segments identical by descent between groups of East-West and South Slavs suggests shared ancestry or a modest gene flow between those two groups, which might derive from the historic spread of Slavic people.

No MeSH data available.