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On the Relationship between Economic Development, Environmental Integrity and Well-Being: The Point of View of Herdsmen in Northern China Grassland.

Dong X, Dai G, Ulgiati S, Na R, Zhang X, Kang M, Wang X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China.The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen's wellbeing.Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen's understanding and acceptance of these policies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China; College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

ABSTRACT
Inner Mongolia is among the most important regions in terms of contribution to the socio-economic development of China. Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China. The present study evaluates the changes in ecosystem services availability and human wellbeing based on a survey on864 herdsmen of the grassland and 20 governmental officials. The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen's wellbeing. The intensity of grazing, coal exploitation and tourism development heavily limits the availability of ecosystem services, among which provisioning ones are perceived as the most important. Below a certain threshold, grazing and mining are likely to promote the improvement of herdsmen's wellbeing, while trespassing that point, the enhancement of the herdsmen's living standards is curbed. (2) The herdsmen's cultural exchange, health conditions and social relations are better now than before; however, the threats on herdsmen's health and safety have increased. (3) A better income is among the most urgent herdsmen's needs. Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen's understanding and acceptance of these policies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

How much money do herdsmen spend on gifts between neighbors in a year?
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pone.0134786.g005: How much money do herdsmen spend on gifts between neighbors in a year?

Mentions: Most of herdsmen now live in towns, replacing the previous solo living far away from each other. This can establish social norms that promote cohesion, repair and strengthen family cohesion, and provide safe, equitable labor environments that are beneficial to the development of healthy relationships[5].According to Chinese habits, gift exchanges between neighbors at major life events are an indicator of their social relationship. However, 21.9% of the herdsmen’s gift expenditures are below165 $, gift expenditures between 165$and 331$ accounted for the largest proportion (35.0%), while 19.6% had expenditures between 331 $ and 662 $ and 23.5% was able to spend more than 662 $ (Fig 5). Compared with farmers’ yearly gift expenditure of over 496$[44], the average herdsman’s gift expenditure is lower, which may be related to the herdsman’s income.


On the Relationship between Economic Development, Environmental Integrity and Well-Being: The Point of View of Herdsmen in Northern China Grassland.

Dong X, Dai G, Ulgiati S, Na R, Zhang X, Kang M, Wang X - PLoS ONE (2015)

How much money do herdsmen spend on gifts between neighbors in a year?
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557951&req=5

pone.0134786.g005: How much money do herdsmen spend on gifts between neighbors in a year?
Mentions: Most of herdsmen now live in towns, replacing the previous solo living far away from each other. This can establish social norms that promote cohesion, repair and strengthen family cohesion, and provide safe, equitable labor environments that are beneficial to the development of healthy relationships[5].According to Chinese habits, gift exchanges between neighbors at major life events are an indicator of their social relationship. However, 21.9% of the herdsmen’s gift expenditures are below165 $, gift expenditures between 165$and 331$ accounted for the largest proportion (35.0%), while 19.6% had expenditures between 331 $ and 662 $ and 23.5% was able to spend more than 662 $ (Fig 5). Compared with farmers’ yearly gift expenditure of over 496$[44], the average herdsman’s gift expenditure is lower, which may be related to the herdsman’s income.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China.The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen's wellbeing.Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen's understanding and acceptance of these policies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China; College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

ABSTRACT
Inner Mongolia is among the most important regions in terms of contribution to the socio-economic development of China. Furthermore, its grassland is a major ecological barrier for Northern China. The present study evaluates the changes in ecosystem services availability and human wellbeing based on a survey on864 herdsmen of the grassland and 20 governmental officials. The survey provided the following results: (1) The supporting and provisioning services of the grassland have recently declined, thus affecting the herdsmen's wellbeing. The intensity of grazing, coal exploitation and tourism development heavily limits the availability of ecosystem services, among which provisioning ones are perceived as the most important. Below a certain threshold, grazing and mining are likely to promote the improvement of herdsmen's wellbeing, while trespassing that point, the enhancement of the herdsmen's living standards is curbed. (2) The herdsmen's cultural exchange, health conditions and social relations are better now than before; however, the threats on herdsmen's health and safety have increased. (3) A better income is among the most urgent herdsmen's needs. Livestock revenues did not increase at the same rate as the damage to the grassland and human risk exposure did. (4) The governmental ecological compensation policy did not entirely solve the problem of grassland desertification and environmental degradation, although it is also true that the degree of implementation and effectiveness of government policies is related to the still insufficient herdsmen's understanding and acceptance of these policies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus