Limits...
Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

Carls MG, Larsen ML, Holland LG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water).Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer.Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Auke Bay Laboratories, NMFS, NOAA, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers) including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs) lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water). Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

First and second principal components (PCA 1 and PCA 2) from the correlation matrix of normalized PAHs in mussel tissue.Oiled sites are illustrated with circles, reference with squares (blue), and Chernofski Harbor with triangles (green). Oiled results are color coded by percent naphthalenes, a measure of weathering. The most weathered samples have the least naphthalene.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557949&req=5

pone.0134448.g006: First and second principal components (PCA 1 and PCA 2) from the correlation matrix of normalized PAHs in mussel tissue.Oiled sites are illustrated with circles, reference with squares (blue), and Chernofski Harbor with triangles (green). Oiled results are color coded by percent naphthalenes, a measure of weathering. The most weathered samples have the least naphthalene.

Mentions: Consistent with the differences among areas detected by PAH modeling, PCA separated PAH composition in mussels into three distinct groups with limited overlap: Chernofski Harbor, the reference area, and the oiled area (Fig 6). Although PCA 1 and PCA 2 only explained 31% of the variance, they corroborated the composition differences determined with PAH modeling. Change in homologue proportions provided an estimate of weathering in mussel tissue (more naphthalenes indicate less weathering). Naphthalenes proportions were inversely correlated with the second PCA component (r = -0.879, two-phase exponential decay regression) and chrysenes proportions were positively correlated with it (r = 0.549, linear regression; P < 0.001). Thus, differences in PAH composition in mussels from oiled and reference areas can be explained by the presence of variably weathered oil in the former (Fig 6).


Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

Carls MG, Larsen ML, Holland LG - PLoS ONE (2015)

First and second principal components (PCA 1 and PCA 2) from the correlation matrix of normalized PAHs in mussel tissue.Oiled sites are illustrated with circles, reference with squares (blue), and Chernofski Harbor with triangles (green). Oiled results are color coded by percent naphthalenes, a measure of weathering. The most weathered samples have the least naphthalene.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557949&req=5

pone.0134448.g006: First and second principal components (PCA 1 and PCA 2) from the correlation matrix of normalized PAHs in mussel tissue.Oiled sites are illustrated with circles, reference with squares (blue), and Chernofski Harbor with triangles (green). Oiled results are color coded by percent naphthalenes, a measure of weathering. The most weathered samples have the least naphthalene.
Mentions: Consistent with the differences among areas detected by PAH modeling, PCA separated PAH composition in mussels into three distinct groups with limited overlap: Chernofski Harbor, the reference area, and the oiled area (Fig 6). Although PCA 1 and PCA 2 only explained 31% of the variance, they corroborated the composition differences determined with PAH modeling. Change in homologue proportions provided an estimate of weathering in mussel tissue (more naphthalenes indicate less weathering). Naphthalenes proportions were inversely correlated with the second PCA component (r = -0.879, two-phase exponential decay regression) and chrysenes proportions were positively correlated with it (r = 0.549, linear regression; P < 0.001). Thus, differences in PAH composition in mussels from oiled and reference areas can be explained by the presence of variably weathered oil in the former (Fig 6).

Bottom Line: Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water).Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer.Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Auke Bay Laboratories, NMFS, NOAA, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers) including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs) lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water). Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil) were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers) implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus