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Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

Pollegioni P, Woeste KE, Chiocchini F, Del Lungo S, Olimpieri I, Tortolano V, Clark J, Hemery GE, Mapelli S, Malvolti ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged.A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries.Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council, Porano, Terni, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

No MeSH data available.


Common walnut population graph for 39 study sites in the Asian range.Nodes represent geographic sites with diameter proportional to within-site heterozygosity and length of edges connecting nodes equivalent to genetic differentiation among the sites calculated using 14 SSR markers. The color of each node represents the language phylum spoken by human communities living in the geographic sampling sites.
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pone.0135980.g003: Common walnut population graph for 39 study sites in the Asian range.Nodes represent geographic sites with diameter proportional to within-site heterozygosity and length of edges connecting nodes equivalent to genetic differentiation among the sites calculated using 14 SSR markers. The color of each node represents the language phylum spoken by human communities living in the geographic sampling sites.

Mentions: A multivariate population graph displayed a partial spatial coincidence between the inferred population structure of J. regia and the linguistic diversity detected among human communities living in the sampled sites (Fig 3). In particular, five (33-Gilgit Valley, 34-Hunza Valley, Kashmir, Pakistan; 35-Shouli, Tajikistan;36-Karaj, Iran; 37-Anatolia, Turkey) of the nine J. regia populations included in cluster 2 were located in sites where Indo-European speakers are predominant. Three distinct linguistic phyla, Sino-Tibetan, Kartvelian and Altaic, are prevalent in the remaining four J. regia sites of cluster 2, 32-Dashuicum (Tibetan and Chinese-Mandarin, China), 38-Lagodekhi, 39-Skra (Georgian, Georgia) and 19-Karankul (Northern Uzbek, Eastern Uzbekistan), respectively (Fig 3). Current speakers of Turkic languages (Altaic phylum) were mainly localized in Western Kyrgyzstan and East-Central Uzbekistan, corresponding to the geographic distribution of genetic cluster 1 (Kyrgyz language; 1-Ak-Terek, 2-Sharap, 3-Yaradar, 4-Shaidan, 5-Kyzyl-Ungur, 6-Katar-Yangak, 7-Kyok-Sarau, 8-Kyr, 9-Ters-Kolt), cluster 3 (Northern Uzbek language; 20-Farish, 21-Andigen, 22-Katta-Bogdan, 23-Khayat, 24-Yamchi, 25-Karri, 26-Madjerum), and their admixed populations (Northern Uzbek language; 10-Kamchik, 11-Yakkatut, 12-Sidjak, 13-Charvak, 14-Nanai, 15-Djarkurgan, 16-Bogustan, 17-Bostanly) (Fig 3). The population sampled in Bakhmal showed a complex pattern of genetic admixture that included clusters 1, 2 and 3. Bakhmal is located in the Jizakh province of Central Uzbekistan where Northern Uzbek (Turkic) and Tajiki (Indo-Iranian) are currently spoken. A co-distribution of the Sino-Tibetan language phylum and walnut genetic cluster 4 (27-Gongliu-1, 28-Gongliu-2, 29-Gongliu-3, 30-Urumqi, 30-Sunbe’) of Western and Eastern China was also detected (Fig 3).


Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

Pollegioni P, Woeste KE, Chiocchini F, Del Lungo S, Olimpieri I, Tortolano V, Clark J, Hemery GE, Mapelli S, Malvolti ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Common walnut population graph for 39 study sites in the Asian range.Nodes represent geographic sites with diameter proportional to within-site heterozygosity and length of edges connecting nodes equivalent to genetic differentiation among the sites calculated using 14 SSR markers. The color of each node represents the language phylum spoken by human communities living in the geographic sampling sites.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557929&req=5

pone.0135980.g003: Common walnut population graph for 39 study sites in the Asian range.Nodes represent geographic sites with diameter proportional to within-site heterozygosity and length of edges connecting nodes equivalent to genetic differentiation among the sites calculated using 14 SSR markers. The color of each node represents the language phylum spoken by human communities living in the geographic sampling sites.
Mentions: A multivariate population graph displayed a partial spatial coincidence between the inferred population structure of J. regia and the linguistic diversity detected among human communities living in the sampled sites (Fig 3). In particular, five (33-Gilgit Valley, 34-Hunza Valley, Kashmir, Pakistan; 35-Shouli, Tajikistan;36-Karaj, Iran; 37-Anatolia, Turkey) of the nine J. regia populations included in cluster 2 were located in sites where Indo-European speakers are predominant. Three distinct linguistic phyla, Sino-Tibetan, Kartvelian and Altaic, are prevalent in the remaining four J. regia sites of cluster 2, 32-Dashuicum (Tibetan and Chinese-Mandarin, China), 38-Lagodekhi, 39-Skra (Georgian, Georgia) and 19-Karankul (Northern Uzbek, Eastern Uzbekistan), respectively (Fig 3). Current speakers of Turkic languages (Altaic phylum) were mainly localized in Western Kyrgyzstan and East-Central Uzbekistan, corresponding to the geographic distribution of genetic cluster 1 (Kyrgyz language; 1-Ak-Terek, 2-Sharap, 3-Yaradar, 4-Shaidan, 5-Kyzyl-Ungur, 6-Katar-Yangak, 7-Kyok-Sarau, 8-Kyr, 9-Ters-Kolt), cluster 3 (Northern Uzbek language; 20-Farish, 21-Andigen, 22-Katta-Bogdan, 23-Khayat, 24-Yamchi, 25-Karri, 26-Madjerum), and their admixed populations (Northern Uzbek language; 10-Kamchik, 11-Yakkatut, 12-Sidjak, 13-Charvak, 14-Nanai, 15-Djarkurgan, 16-Bogustan, 17-Bostanly) (Fig 3). The population sampled in Bakhmal showed a complex pattern of genetic admixture that included clusters 1, 2 and 3. Bakhmal is located in the Jizakh province of Central Uzbekistan where Northern Uzbek (Turkic) and Tajiki (Indo-Iranian) are currently spoken. A co-distribution of the Sino-Tibetan language phylum and walnut genetic cluster 4 (27-Gongliu-1, 28-Gongliu-2, 29-Gongliu-3, 30-Urumqi, 30-Sunbe’) of Western and Eastern China was also detected (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged.A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries.Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council, Porano, Terni, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

No MeSH data available.