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Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of the Androecia in Ruteae (Rutaceae).

Wei L, Xiang XG, Wang YZ, Li ZY - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade.The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade.The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Ruta, which belongs to tribe Ruteae, is the type genus of the subfamily Rutoideae and the family Rutaceae. Molecular systematic studies have shown that the genera in Ruteae are closer related to Aurantioideae than to most other genera of Rutoideae, some of the genera traditionally placed in Ruteae have been shown to be nested within the Aurantioideae clade, but the diagnostic characters for determining new patterns in the relationship are poor. In this study, we investigated the floral development of Boenninghausenia in Ruteae (sensu stricto), Haplophyllum in the basal position of Aurantioideae and Murraya in traditional Aurantioideae using scanning electron microscopy. The androecium of Boenninghausenia is obdiplostemony. As androecia in other genera within Ruteae (s.s.) are also obdiplostemonous, reconstruction of the ancestral state indicates that obdiplostemony is an ancestral character in this clade. Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade. The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade. The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens.

No MeSH data available.


Haplophyllum dauricum (A, B), Boenninghausenia albiflora (C) and Murraya exotica (D).
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pone.0137190.g002: Haplophyllum dauricum (A, B), Boenninghausenia albiflora (C) and Murraya exotica (D).

Mentions: The actinomorphic flowers are grouped in loose cymes. The flowers are usually pentamerous, with ten stamens arranged in two whorls. In the mature flower, the 10 stamens surround the gynoecium (Fig 2B). The gynoecium is usually 3-carpellate, but the merosity ranges from two to five.


Phylogenetic Relationships and Evolution of the Androecia in Ruteae (Rutaceae).

Wei L, Xiang XG, Wang YZ, Li ZY - PLoS ONE (2015)

Haplophyllum dauricum (A, B), Boenninghausenia albiflora (C) and Murraya exotica (D).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557828&req=5

pone.0137190.g002: Haplophyllum dauricum (A, B), Boenninghausenia albiflora (C) and Murraya exotica (D).
Mentions: The actinomorphic flowers are grouped in loose cymes. The flowers are usually pentamerous, with ten stamens arranged in two whorls. In the mature flower, the 10 stamens surround the gynoecium (Fig 2B). The gynoecium is usually 3-carpellate, but the merosity ranges from two to five.

Bottom Line: Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade.The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade.The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, China; State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Ruta, which belongs to tribe Ruteae, is the type genus of the subfamily Rutoideae and the family Rutaceae. Molecular systematic studies have shown that the genera in Ruteae are closer related to Aurantioideae than to most other genera of Rutoideae, some of the genera traditionally placed in Ruteae have been shown to be nested within the Aurantioideae clade, but the diagnostic characters for determining new patterns in the relationship are poor. In this study, we investigated the floral development of Boenninghausenia in Ruteae (sensu stricto), Haplophyllum in the basal position of Aurantioideae and Murraya in traditional Aurantioideae using scanning electron microscopy. The androecium of Boenninghausenia is obdiplostemony. As androecia in other genera within Ruteae (s.s.) are also obdiplostemonous, reconstruction of the ancestral state indicates that obdiplostemony is an ancestral character in this clade. Because the androecia of Haplophyllum and Murraya are also obdiplostemonous, obdiplostemony is also an ancestral character in Aurantioideae clade. The ancestral state reconstruction indicates this character can serve as a synapomorphy of the Ruteae-Aurantioideae clade. The results of our work also shed light on the evolution of the androecium in Rutaceae, as the obdiplostemony of this group is clearly derived from haplostemony in the ancestral genera in Rutaceae and has develop into polyandry by increasing antepetalous stamens.

No MeSH data available.