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Ganoderma lucidum reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

Chang CJ, Lin CS, Lu CC, Martel J, Ko YF, Ojcius DM, Tseng SF, Wu TR, Chen YY, Young JD, Lai HC - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects.Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia.We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [2] Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [3] Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC [4] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [5] Research Center of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects. Here, we show that a water extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (WEGL) reduces body weight, inflammation and insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia. The anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects are transmissible via horizontal faeces transfer from WEGL-treated mice to HFD-fed mice. We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects. Our results indicate that G. lucidum and its high molecular weight polysaccharides may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

WEGL reduces body weight and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.Chow- and HFD-fed mice were treated daily with 100 μl of either water or WEGL at 2, 4 or 8% (w/v) by intragastric gavage for two months (n=7 for each group). Effects of WEGL treatment on body weight (a) body weight gain (b) epididymal fat (c) subcutaneous fat (d) and epididymal adipocyte size (e) are shown. In e, adipocyte size was estimated using the Image J software (lower panel). Scale bar, 50 μm. Liver weight was measured in HFD and control, chow-fed mice (f). Liver lipid content was assessed using oil red O staining (g). Scale bar, 30 μm. Data are expressed as mean±s.e.m. Body weight differences in a were analysed using unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test (**P<0.01, ***P<0.001). Graph bars in b, c, d and f marked with different letters on top represent statistically significant results (P<0.05) based on Newman–Keuls post hoc one-way ANOVA analysis, whereas bars labelled with the same letter correspond to results that show no statistically significant differences. In the case where two letters are present on top of the bar in b, each letter should be compared separately with the letters of other bars to determine whether the results show statistically significant differences.
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f1: WEGL reduces body weight and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.Chow- and HFD-fed mice were treated daily with 100 μl of either water or WEGL at 2, 4 or 8% (w/v) by intragastric gavage for two months (n=7 for each group). Effects of WEGL treatment on body weight (a) body weight gain (b) epididymal fat (c) subcutaneous fat (d) and epididymal adipocyte size (e) are shown. In e, adipocyte size was estimated using the Image J software (lower panel). Scale bar, 50 μm. Liver weight was measured in HFD and control, chow-fed mice (f). Liver lipid content was assessed using oil red O staining (g). Scale bar, 30 μm. Data are expressed as mean±s.e.m. Body weight differences in a were analysed using unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test (**P<0.01, ***P<0.001). Graph bars in b, c, d and f marked with different letters on top represent statistically significant results (P<0.05) based on Newman–Keuls post hoc one-way ANOVA analysis, whereas bars labelled with the same letter correspond to results that show no statistically significant differences. In the case where two letters are present on top of the bar in b, each letter should be compared separately with the letters of other bars to determine whether the results show statistically significant differences.

Mentions: Using a mouse model of obesity, we observed that HFD feeding for 8 weeks led to significant increases in body and liver weight, epididymal and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and lipid deposition in adipocytes and hepatocytes compared with control chow feeding (Fig. 1a–g). While 8% WEGL did not produce any apparent effects in chow-fed mice, supplementation with WEGL decreased weight gain and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in HFD-fed mice (Fig. 1a–g). Mean energy intake, stool fat and faeces energy did not vary significantly between HFD-fed groups (Supplementary Fig. 1), suggesting that the effects of WEGL on body weight and obesity parameters were not due to reduced food consumption or energy extraction. These results imply that WEGL reduces weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.


Ganoderma lucidum reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

Chang CJ, Lin CS, Lu CC, Martel J, Ko YF, Ojcius DM, Tseng SF, Wu TR, Chen YY, Young JD, Lai HC - Nat Commun (2015)

WEGL reduces body weight and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.Chow- and HFD-fed mice were treated daily with 100 μl of either water or WEGL at 2, 4 or 8% (w/v) by intragastric gavage for two months (n=7 for each group). Effects of WEGL treatment on body weight (a) body weight gain (b) epididymal fat (c) subcutaneous fat (d) and epididymal adipocyte size (e) are shown. In e, adipocyte size was estimated using the Image J software (lower panel). Scale bar, 50 μm. Liver weight was measured in HFD and control, chow-fed mice (f). Liver lipid content was assessed using oil red O staining (g). Scale bar, 30 μm. Data are expressed as mean±s.e.m. Body weight differences in a were analysed using unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test (**P<0.01, ***P<0.001). Graph bars in b, c, d and f marked with different letters on top represent statistically significant results (P<0.05) based on Newman–Keuls post hoc one-way ANOVA analysis, whereas bars labelled with the same letter correspond to results that show no statistically significant differences. In the case where two letters are present on top of the bar in b, each letter should be compared separately with the letters of other bars to determine whether the results show statistically significant differences.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f1: WEGL reduces body weight and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.Chow- and HFD-fed mice were treated daily with 100 μl of either water or WEGL at 2, 4 or 8% (w/v) by intragastric gavage for two months (n=7 for each group). Effects of WEGL treatment on body weight (a) body weight gain (b) epididymal fat (c) subcutaneous fat (d) and epididymal adipocyte size (e) are shown. In e, adipocyte size was estimated using the Image J software (lower panel). Scale bar, 50 μm. Liver weight was measured in HFD and control, chow-fed mice (f). Liver lipid content was assessed using oil red O staining (g). Scale bar, 30 μm. Data are expressed as mean±s.e.m. Body weight differences in a were analysed using unpaired two-tailed Student's t-test (**P<0.01, ***P<0.001). Graph bars in b, c, d and f marked with different letters on top represent statistically significant results (P<0.05) based on Newman–Keuls post hoc one-way ANOVA analysis, whereas bars labelled with the same letter correspond to results that show no statistically significant differences. In the case where two letters are present on top of the bar in b, each letter should be compared separately with the letters of other bars to determine whether the results show statistically significant differences.
Mentions: Using a mouse model of obesity, we observed that HFD feeding for 8 weeks led to significant increases in body and liver weight, epididymal and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and lipid deposition in adipocytes and hepatocytes compared with control chow feeding (Fig. 1a–g). While 8% WEGL did not produce any apparent effects in chow-fed mice, supplementation with WEGL decreased weight gain and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in HFD-fed mice (Fig. 1a–g). Mean energy intake, stool fat and faeces energy did not vary significantly between HFD-fed groups (Supplementary Fig. 1), suggesting that the effects of WEGL on body weight and obesity parameters were not due to reduced food consumption or energy extraction. These results imply that WEGL reduces weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice.

Bottom Line: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects.Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia.We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [2] Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [3] Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC [4] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC [5] Research Center of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Chang Gung University, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC.

ABSTRACT
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects. Here, we show that a water extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (WEGL) reduces body weight, inflammation and insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia. The anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects are transmissible via horizontal faeces transfer from WEGL-treated mice to HFD-fed mice. We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects. Our results indicate that G. lucidum and its high molecular weight polysaccharides may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus