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Chromatin versus pathogens: the function of epigenetics in plant immunity.

Ding B, Wang GL - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses.In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens.Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses. Recent evidence has demonstrated that plants utilize the epigenetic control of gene expression to fine-tune their defense when challenged by pathogens. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens. Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Simplified model for participation of chromatin modification in regulating plant immunity against biotic stress. Histone modification changes in defense-related gene can be achieved through methylation/demethylation and/or acetylation/deacetylation by antagonistic interaction between HMT and HDM or HAT and HDAC Each enzymes catalyzed different modification in regarding its roles in plant immunity is described in literature. The hypothetical involvement of the IncRNA in regulating the dynamin defense gene expression through the modulation of chromatin architecture is proposed as well. ActMe, active methylation marker; RepMe, Repressive methylation marker; HMT, histone methyltransferase; HDM, histone demethylase; HAC, histone acetylase; HDAC, histone de acetylase; IncRNA, long non-coding RNA; PR, pathogenesis-related; R, Resistance.
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Figure 1: Simplified model for participation of chromatin modification in regulating plant immunity against biotic stress. Histone modification changes in defense-related gene can be achieved through methylation/demethylation and/or acetylation/deacetylation by antagonistic interaction between HMT and HDM or HAT and HDAC Each enzymes catalyzed different modification in regarding its roles in plant immunity is described in literature. The hypothetical involvement of the IncRNA in regulating the dynamin defense gene expression through the modulation of chromatin architecture is proposed as well. ActMe, active methylation marker; RepMe, Repressive methylation marker; HMT, histone methyltransferase; HDM, histone demethylase; HAC, histone acetylase; HDAC, histone de acetylase; IncRNA, long non-coding RNA; PR, pathogenesis-related; R, Resistance.

Mentions: Recent research has increased our understanding of how chromatin modifications and remodeling affect defense in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice. Based on current evidence and as summarized in Figure 1, histone modifications in plant defense responses can be grouped as follows: (1) active histone marks that establish a basal expression level of the defense genes to enable an effective induction when the plant is challenged; (2) repressive histone modifications that prevent unnecessary activation of defense-related genes under normal growth conditions; (3) histone modifications that are induced after pathogen infection and that induce or reinforce the expression of defense-related genes; and (4) histone/chromatin changes that occur in response to biotic or abiotic stresses and that can be transmitted to the next generation. In the future, a combination of new genomic and proteomic approaches should be used to identify the targets of the epigenetic-related enzymes and other factors that are involved in the regulation of plant immunity. In addition, only a few histone-modifying enzymes have been investigated. Large-scale screens and characterization of epigenetic mutants should help increase our understanding of the histone-modifying enzymes involved in the chromatin changes that occur when plants defend against pathogens. Moreover, three-dimensional structure plasticity of genomes establishes fine-tune feature in gene expression modulation rather than defined by its linear context. Emerging evidence showed that lncRNAs (long non-coding RNAs) and chromatin remodeling complexes are shaping the dynamic genome topology through chromatin loops to regulate dynamic gene expression in response to the environmental cues (Ariel et al., 2014; Jegu et al., 2014). Considering that the global genome structure is impacted in many diseases in animal systems and the participation of lncRNAs in nuclear architecture, the association between non-coding RNAs and the genome topology related to chromatin marks and organization remains an unexplored area in plant immunity.


Chromatin versus pathogens: the function of epigenetics in plant immunity.

Ding B, Wang GL - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Simplified model for participation of chromatin modification in regulating plant immunity against biotic stress. Histone modification changes in defense-related gene can be achieved through methylation/demethylation and/or acetylation/deacetylation by antagonistic interaction between HMT and HDM or HAT and HDAC Each enzymes catalyzed different modification in regarding its roles in plant immunity is described in literature. The hypothetical involvement of the IncRNA in regulating the dynamin defense gene expression through the modulation of chromatin architecture is proposed as well. ActMe, active methylation marker; RepMe, Repressive methylation marker; HMT, histone methyltransferase; HDM, histone demethylase; HAC, histone acetylase; HDAC, histone de acetylase; IncRNA, long non-coding RNA; PR, pathogenesis-related; R, Resistance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4557108&req=5

Figure 1: Simplified model for participation of chromatin modification in regulating plant immunity against biotic stress. Histone modification changes in defense-related gene can be achieved through methylation/demethylation and/or acetylation/deacetylation by antagonistic interaction between HMT and HDM or HAT and HDAC Each enzymes catalyzed different modification in regarding its roles in plant immunity is described in literature. The hypothetical involvement of the IncRNA in regulating the dynamin defense gene expression through the modulation of chromatin architecture is proposed as well. ActMe, active methylation marker; RepMe, Repressive methylation marker; HMT, histone methyltransferase; HDM, histone demethylase; HAC, histone acetylase; HDAC, histone de acetylase; IncRNA, long non-coding RNA; PR, pathogenesis-related; R, Resistance.
Mentions: Recent research has increased our understanding of how chromatin modifications and remodeling affect defense in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice. Based on current evidence and as summarized in Figure 1, histone modifications in plant defense responses can be grouped as follows: (1) active histone marks that establish a basal expression level of the defense genes to enable an effective induction when the plant is challenged; (2) repressive histone modifications that prevent unnecessary activation of defense-related genes under normal growth conditions; (3) histone modifications that are induced after pathogen infection and that induce or reinforce the expression of defense-related genes; and (4) histone/chromatin changes that occur in response to biotic or abiotic stresses and that can be transmitted to the next generation. In the future, a combination of new genomic and proteomic approaches should be used to identify the targets of the epigenetic-related enzymes and other factors that are involved in the regulation of plant immunity. In addition, only a few histone-modifying enzymes have been investigated. Large-scale screens and characterization of epigenetic mutants should help increase our understanding of the histone-modifying enzymes involved in the chromatin changes that occur when plants defend against pathogens. Moreover, three-dimensional structure plasticity of genomes establishes fine-tune feature in gene expression modulation rather than defined by its linear context. Emerging evidence showed that lncRNAs (long non-coding RNAs) and chromatin remodeling complexes are shaping the dynamic genome topology through chromatin loops to regulate dynamic gene expression in response to the environmental cues (Ariel et al., 2014; Jegu et al., 2014). Considering that the global genome structure is impacted in many diseases in animal systems and the participation of lncRNAs in nuclear architecture, the association between non-coding RNAs and the genome topology related to chromatin marks and organization remains an unexplored area in plant immunity.

Bottom Line: To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses.In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens.Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses. Recent evidence has demonstrated that plants utilize the epigenetic control of gene expression to fine-tune their defense when challenged by pathogens. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens. Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed.

No MeSH data available.