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Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

Liang TW, Lo BC, Wang SL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography.The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa.The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Science Development Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingchuan Rd., Tamsui, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan. ltw27@ms55.hinet.net.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

No MeSH data available.


Desorption efficiency of the unfermented SPP (■) and the fermented SPP (□) on Allura Red AC, R40.
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marinedrugs-13-04576-f007: Desorption efficiency of the unfermented SPP (■) and the fermented SPP (□) on Allura Red AC, R40.

Mentions: After adsorption of Allura Red AC (R40) by unfermented SPP and fermented SPP by B. cereus TKU034, the elution test was performed to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP and fermented SPP in order to know the nature of the process by which the dye remains adhered to the surface of the adsorbents. Figure 7 indicates that fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water more than unfermented SPP. The result showed that distilled water could elute the dye from unfermented SPP and fermented SPP at 2% and 88%, respectively. This might be due to the modified structure of the fermented SPP. The major parts of SPP are chitin and protein. Chitin is used as an effective adsorbent in the adsorption of dyes. Water can destroy the van der Waals’ force between the azo group (–N=N–), amino group (–NH2), and the amide group (–CO–NH–) of chitin. However, there are –SO3− groups in the structure of the dye. These groups make the R40 rather acidic. The amino group in the structure of chitin has a great capability to adsorb contaminants due to its Lewis base character. This group is charged positively when chitin is added to aqueous solutions of R40 due to the acidity of the aqueous solution, and thus an electrostatical interaction occurs between this positive charge with the negative charge in the structures of R40. The leaving group (Na) of the dye can undergo nucleophilic displacement by SO3− on unfermented SPP, so that the covalent linkage is difficult to destroy with only distilled water. After the elution of water, NaOH is then used as another eluent. This substance may destroy the covalent linkage between the dye and absorbents. The results showed that NaOH could elute the dye out of unfermented SPP and fermented SPP at 68% and 3%, respectively. Therefore, the main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of the fermented SPP before and after the adsorption of R40 showed no significant change in the adsorption intensity. This also proved that the adsorption process of the fermented SPP was physical adsorption and may not involve a chemical interaction. These results provide a summary of the available information on SPP reclaim and its potential as a low-cost sorbent.


Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

Liang TW, Lo BC, Wang SL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Desorption efficiency of the unfermented SPP (■) and the fermented SPP (□) on Allura Red AC, R40.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556994&req=5

marinedrugs-13-04576-f007: Desorption efficiency of the unfermented SPP (■) and the fermented SPP (□) on Allura Red AC, R40.
Mentions: After adsorption of Allura Red AC (R40) by unfermented SPP and fermented SPP by B. cereus TKU034, the elution test was performed to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP and fermented SPP in order to know the nature of the process by which the dye remains adhered to the surface of the adsorbents. Figure 7 indicates that fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water more than unfermented SPP. The result showed that distilled water could elute the dye from unfermented SPP and fermented SPP at 2% and 88%, respectively. This might be due to the modified structure of the fermented SPP. The major parts of SPP are chitin and protein. Chitin is used as an effective adsorbent in the adsorption of dyes. Water can destroy the van der Waals’ force between the azo group (–N=N–), amino group (–NH2), and the amide group (–CO–NH–) of chitin. However, there are –SO3− groups in the structure of the dye. These groups make the R40 rather acidic. The amino group in the structure of chitin has a great capability to adsorb contaminants due to its Lewis base character. This group is charged positively when chitin is added to aqueous solutions of R40 due to the acidity of the aqueous solution, and thus an electrostatical interaction occurs between this positive charge with the negative charge in the structures of R40. The leaving group (Na) of the dye can undergo nucleophilic displacement by SO3− on unfermented SPP, so that the covalent linkage is difficult to destroy with only distilled water. After the elution of water, NaOH is then used as another eluent. This substance may destroy the covalent linkage between the dye and absorbents. The results showed that NaOH could elute the dye out of unfermented SPP and fermented SPP at 68% and 3%, respectively. Therefore, the main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of the fermented SPP before and after the adsorption of R40 showed no significant change in the adsorption intensity. This also proved that the adsorption process of the fermented SPP was physical adsorption and may not involve a chemical interaction. These results provide a summary of the available information on SPP reclaim and its potential as a low-cost sorbent.

Bottom Line: One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography.The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa.The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Science Development Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingchuan Rd., Tamsui, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan. ltw27@ms55.hinet.net.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

No MeSH data available.