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Oscillations in pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease and its relationship with deep brain stimulation.

Li M, Zhang W - Front Neural Circuits (2015)

Bottom Line: The recent development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) for the treatment of parkinsonian patients, particularly those in advanced stages with axial symptoms, has ignited interest into the study of this brain nucleus.In contrast to the extensively studied alterations of neural activity that occur in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), our understanding of the activity of the PPN remains insufficient.In recent years, however, a series of studies recording oscillatory activity in the PPN of parkinsonian patients have made important findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Key Clinic Specialty, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The recent development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) for the treatment of parkinsonian patients, particularly those in advanced stages with axial symptoms, has ignited interest into the study of this brain nucleus. In contrast to the extensively studied alterations of neural activity that occur in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), our understanding of the activity of the PPN remains insufficient. In recent years, however, a series of studies recording oscillatory activity in the PPN of parkinsonian patients have made important findings. Here, we briefly review recent studies that explore the different kinds of oscillations observed in the PPN of parkinsonian patients, and how they underlie the pathophysiology of PD and the efficacy of PPN-DBS in these disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The anatomy (location and connections) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. (A) The location of the PPN in the human brain. Alpha oscillations mainly present in the caudal subregion of the PPN, beta oscillations predominantly in the rostral subregion. (B) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPN to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the human brain. Neurons in the rostral subregion mainly express GABA, while neurons in the caudal subregion are primarily cholinergic. Adapted from Jenkinson et al. (2009). (C) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPTg to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the rat brain. (D) The major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. Alpha band promote gait performance by modulating attention processes. Enhanced beta band may result in akinesia. PPN-DBS may affect these two bands to improve symptoms. Theta band is involved in sensory feedback. SNc, substantia nigra compacta; SNr, substantia nigra reticular; GPi/EP, internal globus pallidus; GPm, medial pallidum; STN, subthalamic nucleus; Cd/CPu, caudate nucleus and putamen; Thal, thalamus; Pt, paratenial nucleus; GABA, gamma aminobutyric acid; Ach, acetylcholine.
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Figure 1: The anatomy (location and connections) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. (A) The location of the PPN in the human brain. Alpha oscillations mainly present in the caudal subregion of the PPN, beta oscillations predominantly in the rostral subregion. (B) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPN to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the human brain. Neurons in the rostral subregion mainly express GABA, while neurons in the caudal subregion are primarily cholinergic. Adapted from Jenkinson et al. (2009). (C) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPTg to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the rat brain. (D) The major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. Alpha band promote gait performance by modulating attention processes. Enhanced beta band may result in akinesia. PPN-DBS may affect these two bands to improve symptoms. Theta band is involved in sensory feedback. SNc, substantia nigra compacta; SNr, substantia nigra reticular; GPi/EP, internal globus pallidus; GPm, medial pallidum; STN, subthalamic nucleus; Cd/CPu, caudate nucleus and putamen; Thal, thalamus; Pt, paratenial nucleus; GABA, gamma aminobutyric acid; Ach, acetylcholine.

Mentions: Topological differences appear to exist between the alpha and beta oscillations of the caudal vs. the rostral PPN. In parkinsonian patients, alpha oscillations represented the main frequency in the caudal subregion of the PPN, while beta oscillations predominate in the rostral subregion (Figure 1A; Weinberger et al., 2008; Thevathasan et al., 2012; Tattersall et al., 2014).


Oscillations in pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease and its relationship with deep brain stimulation.

Li M, Zhang W - Front Neural Circuits (2015)

The anatomy (location and connections) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. (A) The location of the PPN in the human brain. Alpha oscillations mainly present in the caudal subregion of the PPN, beta oscillations predominantly in the rostral subregion. (B) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPN to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the human brain. Neurons in the rostral subregion mainly express GABA, while neurons in the caudal subregion are primarily cholinergic. Adapted from Jenkinson et al. (2009). (C) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPTg to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the rat brain. (D) The major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. Alpha band promote gait performance by modulating attention processes. Enhanced beta band may result in akinesia. PPN-DBS may affect these two bands to improve symptoms. Theta band is involved in sensory feedback. SNc, substantia nigra compacta; SNr, substantia nigra reticular; GPi/EP, internal globus pallidus; GPm, medial pallidum; STN, subthalamic nucleus; Cd/CPu, caudate nucleus and putamen; Thal, thalamus; Pt, paratenial nucleus; GABA, gamma aminobutyric acid; Ach, acetylcholine.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556974&req=5

Figure 1: The anatomy (location and connections) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. (A) The location of the PPN in the human brain. Alpha oscillations mainly present in the caudal subregion of the PPN, beta oscillations predominantly in the rostral subregion. (B) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPN to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the human brain. Neurons in the rostral subregion mainly express GABA, while neurons in the caudal subregion are primarily cholinergic. Adapted from Jenkinson et al. (2009). (C) The major efferent and afferent pathways of the PPTg to the basal ganglia and other motor structures in the rat brain. (D) The major oscillations in the PPN and their functional characteristics. Alpha band promote gait performance by modulating attention processes. Enhanced beta band may result in akinesia. PPN-DBS may affect these two bands to improve symptoms. Theta band is involved in sensory feedback. SNc, substantia nigra compacta; SNr, substantia nigra reticular; GPi/EP, internal globus pallidus; GPm, medial pallidum; STN, subthalamic nucleus; Cd/CPu, caudate nucleus and putamen; Thal, thalamus; Pt, paratenial nucleus; GABA, gamma aminobutyric acid; Ach, acetylcholine.
Mentions: Topological differences appear to exist between the alpha and beta oscillations of the caudal vs. the rostral PPN. In parkinsonian patients, alpha oscillations represented the main frequency in the caudal subregion of the PPN, while beta oscillations predominate in the rostral subregion (Figure 1A; Weinberger et al., 2008; Thevathasan et al., 2012; Tattersall et al., 2014).

Bottom Line: The recent development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) for the treatment of parkinsonian patients, particularly those in advanced stages with axial symptoms, has ignited interest into the study of this brain nucleus.In contrast to the extensively studied alterations of neural activity that occur in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), our understanding of the activity of the PPN remains insufficient.In recent years, however, a series of studies recording oscillatory activity in the PPN of parkinsonian patients have made important findings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The National Key Clinic Specialty, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, The Engineering Technology Research Center of Education Ministry of China, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
The recent development of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) for the treatment of parkinsonian patients, particularly those in advanced stages with axial symptoms, has ignited interest into the study of this brain nucleus. In contrast to the extensively studied alterations of neural activity that occur in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD), our understanding of the activity of the PPN remains insufficient. In recent years, however, a series of studies recording oscillatory activity in the PPN of parkinsonian patients have made important findings. Here, we briefly review recent studies that explore the different kinds of oscillations observed in the PPN of parkinsonian patients, and how they underlie the pathophysiology of PD and the efficacy of PPN-DBS in these disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus