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Immune Homeostasis in Epithelial Cells: Evidence and Role of Inflammasome Signaling Reviewed.

Peeters PM, Wouters EF, Reynaert NL - J Immunol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: The epithelium regulates the interaction between the noxious xenogenous, as well as the microbial environment and the immune system, not only by providing a barrier but also by expressing a number of immunoregulatory membrane receptors, and intracellular danger sensors and their downstream effectors.Amongst these are a number of inflammasome sensor subtypes, which have been initially characterized in myeloid cells and described to be activated upon assembly into multiprotein complexes by microbial and environmental triggers.This review compiles a vast amount of literature that supports a pivotal role for inflammasomes in the various epithelial barriers of the human body as essential factors maintaining immune signaling and homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nutrim School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands ; IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The epithelium regulates the interaction between the noxious xenogenous, as well as the microbial environment and the immune system, not only by providing a barrier but also by expressing a number of immunoregulatory membrane receptors, and intracellular danger sensors and their downstream effectors. Amongst these are a number of inflammasome sensor subtypes, which have been initially characterized in myeloid cells and described to be activated upon assembly into multiprotein complexes by microbial and environmental triggers. This review compiles a vast amount of literature that supports a pivotal role for inflammasomes in the various epithelial barriers of the human body as essential factors maintaining immune signaling and homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic representations of simple cuboidal epithelial cells lining the urogenital tract in which different inflammasomes have been described to be activated by independent instigators triggering the release of inflammasome readouts.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig5: Schematic representations of simple cuboidal epithelial cells lining the urogenital tract in which different inflammasomes have been described to be activated by independent instigators triggering the release of inflammasome readouts.

Mentions: With respect to cells lining the urogenital tract, evidence suggests that inflammasomes, next to other PPRs, have important roles in associated diseases through regulation of inflammatory and tissue-repair responses to infection and injury [116]. First, on the subject of human kidney diseases such as Wegener's granulomatosis and in experimental models of glomerulonephritis, glomerular as well as tubular epithelial cells have been shown to synthesize and release IL-1β, constitutively [117–119]. In a recent study that analyzed the processing of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice reflecting chronic kidney disease, it was shown that NLRP3 has a biological function in both hematopoietic and renal epithelial compartments during renal injury. Additionally, in models of ischemic tubular necrosis and obstruction-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an important role for caspase-1 and IL-18 has been demonstrated under hypoxic conditions and in the absence of vascular effects [120–122]. Other cells lining epithelial tracts in contact with the environment conveying inflammasomes are prostate epithelial cells expressing AIM2 with increased caspase-1 activity in an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and human cervical epithelial cells expressing AIM2 and IFI16 inflammasomes following Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus 2, respectively [123–125]. Although the amount of literature on inflammasome activation in these organs is relatively scarce, other studies demonstrate a pivotal role of the presence and activation of various inflammasomes in the epithelium of urogenital organs exposed to the environment [126–128] (Figure 5).


Immune Homeostasis in Epithelial Cells: Evidence and Role of Inflammasome Signaling Reviewed.

Peeters PM, Wouters EF, Reynaert NL - J Immunol Res (2015)

Schematic representations of simple cuboidal epithelial cells lining the urogenital tract in which different inflammasomes have been described to be activated by independent instigators triggering the release of inflammasome readouts.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556877&req=5

fig5: Schematic representations of simple cuboidal epithelial cells lining the urogenital tract in which different inflammasomes have been described to be activated by independent instigators triggering the release of inflammasome readouts.
Mentions: With respect to cells lining the urogenital tract, evidence suggests that inflammasomes, next to other PPRs, have important roles in associated diseases through regulation of inflammatory and tissue-repair responses to infection and injury [116]. First, on the subject of human kidney diseases such as Wegener's granulomatosis and in experimental models of glomerulonephritis, glomerular as well as tubular epithelial cells have been shown to synthesize and release IL-1β, constitutively [117–119]. In a recent study that analyzed the processing of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice reflecting chronic kidney disease, it was shown that NLRP3 has a biological function in both hematopoietic and renal epithelial compartments during renal injury. Additionally, in models of ischemic tubular necrosis and obstruction-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an important role for caspase-1 and IL-18 has been demonstrated under hypoxic conditions and in the absence of vascular effects [120–122]. Other cells lining epithelial tracts in contact with the environment conveying inflammasomes are prostate epithelial cells expressing AIM2 with increased caspase-1 activity in an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and human cervical epithelial cells expressing AIM2 and IFI16 inflammasomes following Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus 2, respectively [123–125]. Although the amount of literature on inflammasome activation in these organs is relatively scarce, other studies demonstrate a pivotal role of the presence and activation of various inflammasomes in the epithelium of urogenital organs exposed to the environment [126–128] (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: The epithelium regulates the interaction between the noxious xenogenous, as well as the microbial environment and the immune system, not only by providing a barrier but also by expressing a number of immunoregulatory membrane receptors, and intracellular danger sensors and their downstream effectors.Amongst these are a number of inflammasome sensor subtypes, which have been initially characterized in myeloid cells and described to be activated upon assembly into multiprotein complexes by microbial and environmental triggers.This review compiles a vast amount of literature that supports a pivotal role for inflammasomes in the various epithelial barriers of the human body as essential factors maintaining immune signaling and homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nutrim School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6229 HX Maastricht, Netherlands ; IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The epithelium regulates the interaction between the noxious xenogenous, as well as the microbial environment and the immune system, not only by providing a barrier but also by expressing a number of immunoregulatory membrane receptors, and intracellular danger sensors and their downstream effectors. Amongst these are a number of inflammasome sensor subtypes, which have been initially characterized in myeloid cells and described to be activated upon assembly into multiprotein complexes by microbial and environmental triggers. This review compiles a vast amount of literature that supports a pivotal role for inflammasomes in the various epithelial barriers of the human body as essential factors maintaining immune signaling and homeostasis.

No MeSH data available.