Limits...
Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

Görlach A, Bertram K, Hudecova S, Krizanova O - Redox Biol (2015)

Bottom Line: Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions.Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death.However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Molecular Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center Munich at the Technical University Munich, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: goerlach@dhm.mhn.de.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Membrane transporters of calcium ions localized in the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondrial membranes. Calcium channels (illustrated by green boxes) transport calcium ions into the cytoplasm upon changes in membrane potential or ligand binding. Calcium pumps (yellow boxes) transport calcium from the cytoplasm or into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are energy-dependent. Sodium–calcium exchangers belong to antiporters transporting calcium ions against sodium ions. Two receptors that are localized in the ER release calcium from the ER store. In mitochondria, calcium transport is realized through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, mitochondrial uniporter and sodium calcium exchanger. Abbreviations: NCX – sodium-calcium exchanger; VDCC – voltage-dependent calcium channel; PMCA – plasma membrane calcium ATPase; ROC – receptor operated channels; TRPC – transient receptor potential channel; SERCA – sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase; RyR – ryanodine receptor; IP3R – inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; mPTP – mitochondrial permeability transition pore; MCU – mitochondrial uniporter.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556774&req=5

f0005: Membrane transporters of calcium ions localized in the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondrial membranes. Calcium channels (illustrated by green boxes) transport calcium ions into the cytoplasm upon changes in membrane potential or ligand binding. Calcium pumps (yellow boxes) transport calcium from the cytoplasm or into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are energy-dependent. Sodium–calcium exchangers belong to antiporters transporting calcium ions against sodium ions. Two receptors that are localized in the ER release calcium from the ER store. In mitochondria, calcium transport is realized through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, mitochondrial uniporter and sodium calcium exchanger. Abbreviations: NCX – sodium-calcium exchanger; VDCC – voltage-dependent calcium channel; PMCA – plasma membrane calcium ATPase; ROC – receptor operated channels; TRPC – transient receptor potential channel; SERCA – sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase; RyR – ryanodine receptor; IP3R – inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; mPTP – mitochondrial permeability transition pore; MCU – mitochondrial uniporter.

Mentions: Calcium (Ca2+) as an important second messenger regulates a variety of cellular functions, including contraction, secretion, metabolism, gene expression, cell survival and cell death [14]. Calcium ions enter the cell mostly through transmembrane proteins, called calcium channels. Calcium flow through the calcium channels (either voltage-dependent, or receptor-operated) does not require energy, in contrast to calcium pumps (ATP-ases) that transport calcium from the cells and are ATP-dependent. Part of the intracellular calcium moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) and is released from this store by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) or ryanodine receptors (RyR) (Fig. 1).


Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

Görlach A, Bertram K, Hudecova S, Krizanova O - Redox Biol (2015)

Membrane transporters of calcium ions localized in the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondrial membranes. Calcium channels (illustrated by green boxes) transport calcium ions into the cytoplasm upon changes in membrane potential or ligand binding. Calcium pumps (yellow boxes) transport calcium from the cytoplasm or into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are energy-dependent. Sodium–calcium exchangers belong to antiporters transporting calcium ions against sodium ions. Two receptors that are localized in the ER release calcium from the ER store. In mitochondria, calcium transport is realized through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, mitochondrial uniporter and sodium calcium exchanger. Abbreviations: NCX – sodium-calcium exchanger; VDCC – voltage-dependent calcium channel; PMCA – plasma membrane calcium ATPase; ROC – receptor operated channels; TRPC – transient receptor potential channel; SERCA – sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase; RyR – ryanodine receptor; IP3R – inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; mPTP – mitochondrial permeability transition pore; MCU – mitochondrial uniporter.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556774&req=5

f0005: Membrane transporters of calcium ions localized in the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondrial membranes. Calcium channels (illustrated by green boxes) transport calcium ions into the cytoplasm upon changes in membrane potential or ligand binding. Calcium pumps (yellow boxes) transport calcium from the cytoplasm or into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are energy-dependent. Sodium–calcium exchangers belong to antiporters transporting calcium ions against sodium ions. Two receptors that are localized in the ER release calcium from the ER store. In mitochondria, calcium transport is realized through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, mitochondrial uniporter and sodium calcium exchanger. Abbreviations: NCX – sodium-calcium exchanger; VDCC – voltage-dependent calcium channel; PMCA – plasma membrane calcium ATPase; ROC – receptor operated channels; TRPC – transient receptor potential channel; SERCA – sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase; RyR – ryanodine receptor; IP3R – inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; mPTP – mitochondrial permeability transition pore; MCU – mitochondrial uniporter.
Mentions: Calcium (Ca2+) as an important second messenger regulates a variety of cellular functions, including contraction, secretion, metabolism, gene expression, cell survival and cell death [14]. Calcium ions enter the cell mostly through transmembrane proteins, called calcium channels. Calcium flow through the calcium channels (either voltage-dependent, or receptor-operated) does not require energy, in contrast to calcium pumps (ATP-ases) that transport calcium from the cells and are ATP-dependent. Part of the intracellular calcium moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) and is released from this store by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) or ryanodine receptors (RyR) (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions.Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death.However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental and Molecular Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center Munich at the Technical University Munich, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: goerlach@dhm.mhn.de.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus