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The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema.

Hajhashemi V, Minaiyan M, Banafshe HR, Mesdaghinia A, Abed A - Iran J Basic Med Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine.These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug.Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms.

Materials and methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema.

Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg) and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat) injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP), an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of venlafaxine on IL-1β levels in the rat paws after carrageenan (1%) injections. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP or 50 and 100 μg/rat, ICV) was injected 30 min prior to subplantar injection of carrageenan. The results are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 versus control group, n=6 in all groups, venlafaxine 50 (venlafaxine 50 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 100 (venlafaxine 100 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 50 ICV (venlafaxine 50 µg/rat, ICV), venlafaxine 100 ICV (venlafaxine 100 µg/rat, ICV)
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Figure 4: Effect of venlafaxine on IL-1β levels in the rat paws after carrageenan (1%) injections. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP or 50 and 100 μg/rat, ICV) was injected 30 min prior to subplantar injection of carrageenan. The results are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 versus control group, n=6 in all groups, venlafaxine 50 (venlafaxine 50 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 100 (venlafaxine 100 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 50 ICV (venlafaxine 50 µg/rat, ICV), venlafaxine 100 ICV (venlafaxine 100 µg/rat, ICV)

Mentions: As illustrated in Figure 4, carrageenan injections significantly increased IL-1β concentration in the hind paw. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP) significantly reduced IL-1β level. The ICV administration of venlafaxine (50 and 100 μg/rat) also significantly attenuated production of IL-1β in the carrageenan-injected paws.


The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema.

Hajhashemi V, Minaiyan M, Banafshe HR, Mesdaghinia A, Abed A - Iran J Basic Med Sci (2015)

Effect of venlafaxine on IL-1β levels in the rat paws after carrageenan (1%) injections. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP or 50 and 100 μg/rat, ICV) was injected 30 min prior to subplantar injection of carrageenan. The results are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 versus control group, n=6 in all groups, venlafaxine 50 (venlafaxine 50 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 100 (venlafaxine 100 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 50 ICV (venlafaxine 50 µg/rat, ICV), venlafaxine 100 ICV (venlafaxine 100 µg/rat, ICV)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556757&req=5

Figure 4: Effect of venlafaxine on IL-1β levels in the rat paws after carrageenan (1%) injections. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP or 50 and 100 μg/rat, ICV) was injected 30 min prior to subplantar injection of carrageenan. The results are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05, **P<0.01 versus control group, n=6 in all groups, venlafaxine 50 (venlafaxine 50 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 100 (venlafaxine 100 mg/kg, IP), venlafaxine 50 ICV (venlafaxine 50 µg/rat, ICV), venlafaxine 100 ICV (venlafaxine 100 µg/rat, ICV)
Mentions: As illustrated in Figure 4, carrageenan injections significantly increased IL-1β concentration in the hind paw. Venlafaxine (50 and 100 mg/kg, IP) significantly reduced IL-1β level. The ICV administration of venlafaxine (50 and 100 μg/rat) also significantly attenuated production of IL-1β in the carrageenan-injected paws.

Bottom Line: Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine.These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug.Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms.

Materials and methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema.

Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg) and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat) injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP), an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine.

Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus