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Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

Subramaniam K, Hooker CI, Biagianti B, Fisher M, Nagarajan S, Vinogradov S - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Bottom Line: In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks.SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation.Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.

ABSTRACT
Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Conjunction analyses: immediate Reward anticipation versus Null. Whole-brain activation images reveal that HC and SZ participants recruit the same network. The yellow voxels illustrate regions showing activation overlap in the two groups.
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f0015: Conjunction analyses: immediate Reward anticipation versus Null. Whole-brain activation images reveal that HC and SZ participants recruit the same network. The yellow voxels illustrate regions showing activation overlap in the two groups.

Mentions: Next, we conducted one sample t-tests to investigate random-effects whole-brain voxelwise analyses for each group for each contrast using a significance threshold of p < 0.001. In order to run conjunction analyses at the group level, we used IMCalc in SPM8 to determine the overlap between groups with the equation i1 + 2 ∗ i2 for each of the four contrasts. The resulting images that had a value of 3 (i.e., illustrated by the yellow voxels as shown in Fig 3, for example) indicated activated voxels that were common to both HC and SZ groups, revealing that the two groups activated the same network for all four contrasts. We also conducted one-way ANOVAs to examine whole-brain voxel-wise between-group differences for each contrast. We did not find any regions that survived multiple comparison correction (at FDR, p < .05). Therefore, we now present regions showing voxel-wise group differences at an uncorrected threshold of p < .001 in the Supplement as these regions have a small cluster extent which limit the reliability of these effects, but may be useful as exploratory analyses for future studies (see Supplementary Table 1). We also conducted a whole-brain voxel-wise t-test in the SZ group in which we included chlorpromazine (CPZ) medication dosage equivalents as a covariate in order to find whether there were regions in the brain where CPZ medication dosage predicted reward anticipatory/outcome activation. Finally, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-wise one-sample t-test in our combined cohort of HC and SZ participants for each contrast. Table 3 shows all the areas that survived multiple comparison correction (FWE, p < .05) in the combined cohort.


Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

Subramaniam K, Hooker CI, Biagianti B, Fisher M, Nagarajan S, Vinogradov S - Neuroimage Clin (2015)

Conjunction analyses: immediate Reward anticipation versus Null. Whole-brain activation images reveal that HC and SZ participants recruit the same network. The yellow voxels illustrate regions showing activation overlap in the two groups.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556736&req=5

f0015: Conjunction analyses: immediate Reward anticipation versus Null. Whole-brain activation images reveal that HC and SZ participants recruit the same network. The yellow voxels illustrate regions showing activation overlap in the two groups.
Mentions: Next, we conducted one sample t-tests to investigate random-effects whole-brain voxelwise analyses for each group for each contrast using a significance threshold of p < 0.001. In order to run conjunction analyses at the group level, we used IMCalc in SPM8 to determine the overlap between groups with the equation i1 + 2 ∗ i2 for each of the four contrasts. The resulting images that had a value of 3 (i.e., illustrated by the yellow voxels as shown in Fig 3, for example) indicated activated voxels that were common to both HC and SZ groups, revealing that the two groups activated the same network for all four contrasts. We also conducted one-way ANOVAs to examine whole-brain voxel-wise between-group differences for each contrast. We did not find any regions that survived multiple comparison correction (at FDR, p < .05). Therefore, we now present regions showing voxel-wise group differences at an uncorrected threshold of p < .001 in the Supplement as these regions have a small cluster extent which limit the reliability of these effects, but may be useful as exploratory analyses for future studies (see Supplementary Table 1). We also conducted a whole-brain voxel-wise t-test in the SZ group in which we included chlorpromazine (CPZ) medication dosage equivalents as a covariate in order to find whether there were regions in the brain where CPZ medication dosage predicted reward anticipatory/outcome activation. Finally, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-wise one-sample t-test in our combined cohort of HC and SZ participants for each contrast. Table 3 shows all the areas that survived multiple comparison correction (FWE, p < .05) in the combined cohort.

Bottom Line: In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks.SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation.Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.

ABSTRACT
Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus