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454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

Makonde HM, Mwirichia R, Osiemo Z, Boga HI, Klenk HP - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples.The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated.Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to comprehensively characterize the bacterial species and their specific roles in these environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz-Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124 Brunswick, Germany ; Pure and Applied Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, P.O.Box 90420-80100, Mombasa, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to comprehensively characterize the bacterial species and their specific roles in these environments.

No MeSH data available.


A 3 dimensional PCoA plot showing the degree of similarity of bacterial communities on termite guts, mounds and soil samples. R squared (r2) = 0.69. MCG8 Microcerotermes sp. gut homogenate, MIG7Microtermes sp. gut homogenate, OTG1Odontotermes sp. gut homogenate, MTG4M. michaelseni gut homogenate, OTN2 soil from mound C of Odontotermes sp., MTN5 soil from mound D of M.michaelseni, MTS6 soil collected 3 m away from mound D, OTS3 soil collected 3 m away from mound C
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Fig3: A 3 dimensional PCoA plot showing the degree of similarity of bacterial communities on termite guts, mounds and soil samples. R squared (r2) = 0.69. MCG8 Microcerotermes sp. gut homogenate, MIG7Microtermes sp. gut homogenate, OTG1Odontotermes sp. gut homogenate, MTG4M. michaelseni gut homogenate, OTN2 soil from mound C of Odontotermes sp., MTN5 soil from mound D of M.michaelseni, MTS6 soil collected 3 m away from mound D, OTS3 soil collected 3 m away from mound C

Mentions: At high taxonomic resolution, there were salient differences in relative abundance of majority genera across the samples. Within the gut samples, there were 13 genera with known members that were represented with a value ≥2 % in one or more samples (Additional file 2). Notably, the genus Termite Treponema cluster was the most abundant in sample MCG8 (>50 %), while the genus Treponema (≥19 %) was more abundant in MCG8 and MIG7 than in samples OTG1 and MTG4, which were dominated by the genus Alistipes (>30 %) (Additional file 2). For the mounds and savannah soil samples, there were nine genera with known members that were represented by a value ≥2 % in one or more samples. They included; Bryobacter, Acidothermus, Frankia, Hamadaea, Rugosimonospora, Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Rhizomicrobium and Blastobacter (Additional file 2). Clustering of samples based on community similarity clustered the gut and soil samples separately (Figs. 2a, 3). The gut samples (MTG4 and OTG1) had identical communities, thus, clustered together compared to MCG8 and MIG7 samples. Likewise, the mound samples (MTS6 and OTS3) had more similar communities compared to surrounding soil samples (OTS3 and OTN2).Fig. 2


454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

Makonde HM, Mwirichia R, Osiemo Z, Boga HI, Klenk HP - Springerplus (2015)

A 3 dimensional PCoA plot showing the degree of similarity of bacterial communities on termite guts, mounds and soil samples. R squared (r2) = 0.69. MCG8 Microcerotermes sp. gut homogenate, MIG7Microtermes sp. gut homogenate, OTG1Odontotermes sp. gut homogenate, MTG4M. michaelseni gut homogenate, OTN2 soil from mound C of Odontotermes sp., MTN5 soil from mound D of M.michaelseni, MTS6 soil collected 3 m away from mound D, OTS3 soil collected 3 m away from mound C
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556716&req=5

Fig3: A 3 dimensional PCoA plot showing the degree of similarity of bacterial communities on termite guts, mounds and soil samples. R squared (r2) = 0.69. MCG8 Microcerotermes sp. gut homogenate, MIG7Microtermes sp. gut homogenate, OTG1Odontotermes sp. gut homogenate, MTG4M. michaelseni gut homogenate, OTN2 soil from mound C of Odontotermes sp., MTN5 soil from mound D of M.michaelseni, MTS6 soil collected 3 m away from mound D, OTS3 soil collected 3 m away from mound C
Mentions: At high taxonomic resolution, there were salient differences in relative abundance of majority genera across the samples. Within the gut samples, there were 13 genera with known members that were represented with a value ≥2 % in one or more samples (Additional file 2). Notably, the genus Termite Treponema cluster was the most abundant in sample MCG8 (>50 %), while the genus Treponema (≥19 %) was more abundant in MCG8 and MIG7 than in samples OTG1 and MTG4, which were dominated by the genus Alistipes (>30 %) (Additional file 2). For the mounds and savannah soil samples, there were nine genera with known members that were represented by a value ≥2 % in one or more samples. They included; Bryobacter, Acidothermus, Frankia, Hamadaea, Rugosimonospora, Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Rhizomicrobium and Blastobacter (Additional file 2). Clustering of samples based on community similarity clustered the gut and soil samples separately (Figs. 2a, 3). The gut samples (MTG4 and OTG1) had identical communities, thus, clustered together compared to MCG8 and MIG7 samples. Likewise, the mound samples (MTS6 and OTS3) had more similar communities compared to surrounding soil samples (OTS3 and OTN2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples.The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated.Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to comprehensively characterize the bacterial species and their specific roles in these environments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Leibniz-Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstraße 7B, 38124 Brunswick, Germany ; Pure and Applied Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, P.O.Box 90420-80100, Mombasa, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to comprehensively characterize the bacterial species and their specific roles in these environments.

No MeSH data available.