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Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini).

Deere JA, Coulson T, Smallegange IM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression) on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini).Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success.This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression) on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini). This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph) during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites) or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Life cycle of the bulb mite.The life cycle has six life stages; the deutonymph stage is the facultative dispersal stage that develops under unfavourable conditions. Male morph determination is dependent on the size of the tritonymph stage. Here, we found that adult males that had expressed the dispersal stage all matured as fighters (see Results).
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pone.0136872.g001: Life cycle of the bulb mite.The life cycle has six life stages; the deutonymph stage is the facultative dispersal stage that develops under unfavourable conditions. Male morph determination is dependent on the size of the tritonymph stage. Here, we found that adult males that had expressed the dispersal stage all matured as fighters (see Results).

Mentions: The bulb mite is a cosmopolitan pest species with a broad host range [34]. Its life cycle consists of six life stages: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph (non-feeding and facultative), tritonymph and adult (Fig 1). Deutonymph expression depends on environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, food quality or a combination thereof (see review by [34]) and increases as environments deteriorate (e.g. decrease in food quality or decrease in temperature and humidity). To our knowledge, population density does not play a role in deutonymph expression. Longevity and generation time of both sexes is dependent on temperature and food quality. Longevity can be as short as 14 days (fed on garlic at 35°C) or as long as 73 days (fed on peanuts at 27°C) [34], while generation time can be as short as 12 days when fed yeast at 24°C [35] or as long as 56 days (fed on garlic at 16°C) [34]. Reproduction is strictly sexual [34].


Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini).

Deere JA, Coulson T, Smallegange IM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Life cycle of the bulb mite.The life cycle has six life stages; the deutonymph stage is the facultative dispersal stage that develops under unfavourable conditions. Male morph determination is dependent on the size of the tritonymph stage. Here, we found that adult males that had expressed the dispersal stage all matured as fighters (see Results).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556651&req=5

pone.0136872.g001: Life cycle of the bulb mite.The life cycle has six life stages; the deutonymph stage is the facultative dispersal stage that develops under unfavourable conditions. Male morph determination is dependent on the size of the tritonymph stage. Here, we found that adult males that had expressed the dispersal stage all matured as fighters (see Results).
Mentions: The bulb mite is a cosmopolitan pest species with a broad host range [34]. Its life cycle consists of six life stages: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph (non-feeding and facultative), tritonymph and adult (Fig 1). Deutonymph expression depends on environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, food quality or a combination thereof (see review by [34]) and increases as environments deteriorate (e.g. decrease in food quality or decrease in temperature and humidity). To our knowledge, population density does not play a role in deutonymph expression. Longevity and generation time of both sexes is dependent on temperature and food quality. Longevity can be as short as 14 days (fed on garlic at 35°C) or as long as 73 days (fed on peanuts at 27°C) [34], while generation time can be as short as 12 days when fed yeast at 24°C [35] or as long as 56 days (fed on garlic at 16°C) [34]. Reproduction is strictly sexual [34].

Bottom Line: In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression) on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini).Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success.This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression) on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini). This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph) during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites) or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus