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Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

Peng J, Lu Y, Liu W, Zhu Y, Yan X, Xu J, Wang X, Wang Y, Liu W, Sun Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users.Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Central China.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177); 2a, 13.0% (23/177); 3b, 2.3% (4/177); 6a, 1.1% (2/177); 3a, 0.6% (1/177). Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.

Conclusion/significance: The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogeographic tree reconstructed with the partial Core-E1 sequences of subtype 1b isolates.(A) A total of 333 subtype 1b sequences were used to generate the phylogeographic tree: 147 obtained in this study, indicated by HB and three digits (e.g., HB001), 5 from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Wuhan city of Hubei Province, indicated by WH and several digits and/or characters [13], and 180 from blood donors from the 17 provinces and municipalities in China, including 15 from Hubei Province, which were named by HB and two digits (e.g., HB01) [5]. Branches are colored according to the most probable location state of their descendent nodes. Branch width is proportional to the probability value of the inferred ancestral geographical state. To the upper left of the tree are its root location state posterior probability distribution and the color scheme for different geographic origins. At the respective nodes, posterior probabilities of >0.70 are shown along with the estimated time points of the origin for the nodes. Below the tree is a time scale, which indicates the time of HCV origin and evolution. The four intra-genotypic lineages discussed in the main text are labeled A, B, C, and D. (B) The same phylogeographic tree was generated on the basis of the aforementioned dataset in panel A except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included, which were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster of the phylogeographic tree in panel A.
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pone.0137059.g003: Phylogeographic tree reconstructed with the partial Core-E1 sequences of subtype 1b isolates.(A) A total of 333 subtype 1b sequences were used to generate the phylogeographic tree: 147 obtained in this study, indicated by HB and three digits (e.g., HB001), 5 from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Wuhan city of Hubei Province, indicated by WH and several digits and/or characters [13], and 180 from blood donors from the 17 provinces and municipalities in China, including 15 from Hubei Province, which were named by HB and two digits (e.g., HB01) [5]. Branches are colored according to the most probable location state of their descendent nodes. Branch width is proportional to the probability value of the inferred ancestral geographical state. To the upper left of the tree are its root location state posterior probability distribution and the color scheme for different geographic origins. At the respective nodes, posterior probabilities of >0.70 are shown along with the estimated time points of the origin for the nodes. Below the tree is a time scale, which indicates the time of HCV origin and evolution. The four intra-genotypic lineages discussed in the main text are labeled A, B, C, and D. (B) The same phylogeographic tree was generated on the basis of the aforementioned dataset in panel A except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included, which were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster of the phylogeographic tree in panel A.

Mentions: Fig 3A presents a phylogeographic tree estimated on the basis of 372 subtype 1b sequences. Altogether, four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D) were identified, showing significant posterior probabilities of 0.95, 0.71, 1.00, and 1.00, respectively. Between Groups A and B, There appeared two additional groups, one of which contained sequences mostly from Hubei and the north-northeast. However, they showed no significant posterior probabilities. Group A sequences showed a wide range of geographic distribution and the sequences from different regions were cross distributed, which suggested a simultaneous dissemination nationwide. However, these isolates may have descended from a common ancestor in Hubei dated around 1971 (95% CI: 1962–1982). Sequences in Group B were mainly from Hubei and the central south, in particular, Guangdong Province, indicating that subtype 1b was locally epidemic in these two regions. It seems that this group of 1b strains may have originated from a Hubei ancestor dated around 1973 (95% CI: 1961–1983). In contrast to Groups A and B, which contained sequences with a mixture of geographic origins, Groups C and D contained sequences mainly from a single region, the northwest. Both of them may also have descended from Hubei ancestors, dated around 1973 (95% CI: 1960–1984) and 1981 (95% CI: 1972–1990), respectively. It should be mentioned that Group D isolates were mainly from the IDUs in the northwest and Hubei Province, which suggests a common IDU network between these two regions. To further confirm the aforementioned findings and to avoid potential influences of a heavy weight of Hubei sequences on evolutionary analysis, an additional phylogeographic tree was reconstructed (Fig 1B) based on the same dataset except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included. These Hubei sequences were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster. As a whole, there appeared a trend of 1b migration from Hubei to other parts of China. Among them, the north-northeast and northwest became the second source regions to disseminate 1b trains to other parts of China. These findings were further demonstrated by the phylogeographic trees estimated on the relatively short NS5B sequences (S1 Fig).


Genotype Distribution and Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in Hubei, Central China.

Peng J, Lu Y, Liu W, Zhu Y, Yan X, Xu J, Wang X, Wang Y, Liu W, Sun Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogeographic tree reconstructed with the partial Core-E1 sequences of subtype 1b isolates.(A) A total of 333 subtype 1b sequences were used to generate the phylogeographic tree: 147 obtained in this study, indicated by HB and three digits (e.g., HB001), 5 from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Wuhan city of Hubei Province, indicated by WH and several digits and/or characters [13], and 180 from blood donors from the 17 provinces and municipalities in China, including 15 from Hubei Province, which were named by HB and two digits (e.g., HB01) [5]. Branches are colored according to the most probable location state of their descendent nodes. Branch width is proportional to the probability value of the inferred ancestral geographical state. To the upper left of the tree are its root location state posterior probability distribution and the color scheme for different geographic origins. At the respective nodes, posterior probabilities of >0.70 are shown along with the estimated time points of the origin for the nodes. Below the tree is a time scale, which indicates the time of HCV origin and evolution. The four intra-genotypic lineages discussed in the main text are labeled A, B, C, and D. (B) The same phylogeographic tree was generated on the basis of the aforementioned dataset in panel A except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included, which were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster of the phylogeographic tree in panel A.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556612&req=5

pone.0137059.g003: Phylogeographic tree reconstructed with the partial Core-E1 sequences of subtype 1b isolates.(A) A total of 333 subtype 1b sequences were used to generate the phylogeographic tree: 147 obtained in this study, indicated by HB and three digits (e.g., HB001), 5 from intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Wuhan city of Hubei Province, indicated by WH and several digits and/or characters [13], and 180 from blood donors from the 17 provinces and municipalities in China, including 15 from Hubei Province, which were named by HB and two digits (e.g., HB01) [5]. Branches are colored according to the most probable location state of their descendent nodes. Branch width is proportional to the probability value of the inferred ancestral geographical state. To the upper left of the tree are its root location state posterior probability distribution and the color scheme for different geographic origins. At the respective nodes, posterior probabilities of >0.70 are shown along with the estimated time points of the origin for the nodes. Below the tree is a time scale, which indicates the time of HCV origin and evolution. The four intra-genotypic lineages discussed in the main text are labeled A, B, C, and D. (B) The same phylogeographic tree was generated on the basis of the aforementioned dataset in panel A except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included, which were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster of the phylogeographic tree in panel A.
Mentions: Fig 3A presents a phylogeographic tree estimated on the basis of 372 subtype 1b sequences. Altogether, four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D) were identified, showing significant posterior probabilities of 0.95, 0.71, 1.00, and 1.00, respectively. Between Groups A and B, There appeared two additional groups, one of which contained sequences mostly from Hubei and the north-northeast. However, they showed no significant posterior probabilities. Group A sequences showed a wide range of geographic distribution and the sequences from different regions were cross distributed, which suggested a simultaneous dissemination nationwide. However, these isolates may have descended from a common ancestor in Hubei dated around 1971 (95% CI: 1962–1982). Sequences in Group B were mainly from Hubei and the central south, in particular, Guangdong Province, indicating that subtype 1b was locally epidemic in these two regions. It seems that this group of 1b strains may have originated from a Hubei ancestor dated around 1973 (95% CI: 1961–1983). In contrast to Groups A and B, which contained sequences with a mixture of geographic origins, Groups C and D contained sequences mainly from a single region, the northwest. Both of them may also have descended from Hubei ancestors, dated around 1973 (95% CI: 1960–1984) and 1981 (95% CI: 1972–1990), respectively. It should be mentioned that Group D isolates were mainly from the IDUs in the northwest and Hubei Province, which suggests a common IDU network between these two regions. To further confirm the aforementioned findings and to avoid potential influences of a heavy weight of Hubei sequences on evolutionary analysis, an additional phylogeographic tree was reconstructed (Fig 1B) based on the same dataset except that only 49 Hubei sequences were included. These Hubei sequences were selected according to a scenario that no more than 3 sequences were retained from each phylogenetic cluster. As a whole, there appeared a trend of 1b migration from Hubei to other parts of China. Among them, the north-northeast and northwest became the second source regions to disseminate 1b trains to other parts of China. These findings were further demonstrated by the phylogeographic trees estimated on the relatively short NS5B sequences (S1 Fig).

Bottom Line: Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users.Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Central China.

Methodology/principal findings: A total of 570 patients from Hubei Province in central China were enrolled. These patients were tested positive for HCV antibody prior to blood transfusion. Among them, 177 were characterized by partial NS5B and/or Core-E1 sequences and classified into five subtypes: 1b, 83.0% (147/177); 2a, 13.0% (23/177); 3b, 2.3% (4/177); 6a, 1.1% (2/177); 3a, 0.6% (1/177). Analysis of genotype-associated risk factors revealed that paid blood donation and transfusion before 1997 were strongly associated with subtypes 1b and 2a, while some subtype 2a cases were also found in individuals with high risk sexual behaviors; subtypes 3b, 6a, and 3a were detected only in intravenous drug users. Phylogeographic analyses based on the coalescent datasets demonstrated that 1b, 2a, 3b, and 6a were locally epidemic in Hubei Province. Among them, subtype 1b Hubei strains may have served as the origins of this subtype in China, and 2a and 3b Hubei strains may have descended from the northwest and southwest of China, respectively, while 6a Hubei strains may have been imported from the central south and southwest.

Conclusion/significance: The results suggest that the migration patterns of HCV in Hubei are complex and variable among different subtypes. Implementation of mandatory HCV screening before donation has significantly decreased the incidence of transfusion-associated HCV infection since 1997. More attention should be paid to intravenous drug use and unsafe sexual contact, which may have become new risk factors for HCV infection in Hubei Province.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus