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Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

Ciapała S, Adamski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest.The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process.This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Environment Sciences, Faculty of Ecology, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of lines showing the course of processes for different study plots.A–trees growing in the control zone in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, B–trees growing near the track in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, C–trees growing in the control zone beyond the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot, D–trees growing near the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot. 1 –linear fit, 2 –negative exponential fit, 3 –best-fitted curve: for A–negative exponential, B–Weibull fit, C and D– 3rd degree polynominal. Below the main charts q-q plots for each fitted curves are presented.
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pone.0136830.g005: Comparison of lines showing the course of processes for different study plots.A–trees growing in the control zone in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, B–trees growing near the track in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, C–trees growing in the control zone beyond the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot, D–trees growing near the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot. 1 –linear fit, 2 –negative exponential fit, 3 –best-fitted curve: for A–negative exponential, B–Weibull fit, C and D– 3rd degree polynominal. Below the main charts q-q plots for each fitted curves are presented.

Mentions: Here it should be stressed that a strong difference between the studied areas became evident (Fig 4), which is demonstrated by the distinct differences in the values of residuals for both areas, calculated both for the linear (t = 22.0664; p<0.0001) and negative exponential (t = 24.2186; p<0.0001) model. Therefore, we have decided to consider the course of processes separately for each study plot (Table 2, Fig 5). Not only the major difference between the study plots is conspicuous, but also the fact that the process of change occurring in each of them is best described by different models. In the case of the Kopieniec track, linear fit does not significantly deviate from the negative exponential and Weibull fits (Table 3), whereas for the control area, the level of Weibull fit was significantly higher than the linear and negative exponential. On the other hand, as regards the Murowaniec-Waksmundzka section, the best fit–significantly higher than the linear and negative exponential–both for trees growing near the track and in the reference area, was shown by the line representing a 3rd degree polynomial function (Tables 2 and 3). In this case, the parallelism of these lines was compared [45], demonstrating significant differences (f = 2.0896; p = 0.0053).


Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

Ciapała S, Adamski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of lines showing the course of processes for different study plots.A–trees growing in the control zone in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, B–trees growing near the track in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, C–trees growing in the control zone beyond the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot, D–trees growing near the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot. 1 –linear fit, 2 –negative exponential fit, 3 –best-fitted curve: for A–negative exponential, B–Weibull fit, C and D– 3rd degree polynominal. Below the main charts q-q plots for each fitted curves are presented.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556516&req=5

pone.0136830.g005: Comparison of lines showing the course of processes for different study plots.A–trees growing in the control zone in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, B–trees growing near the track in the "Cyrla-Kopieniec" study plot, C–trees growing in the control zone beyond the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot, D–trees growing near the track in the "Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka" study plot. 1 –linear fit, 2 –negative exponential fit, 3 –best-fitted curve: for A–negative exponential, B–Weibull fit, C and D– 3rd degree polynominal. Below the main charts q-q plots for each fitted curves are presented.
Mentions: Here it should be stressed that a strong difference between the studied areas became evident (Fig 4), which is demonstrated by the distinct differences in the values of residuals for both areas, calculated both for the linear (t = 22.0664; p<0.0001) and negative exponential (t = 24.2186; p<0.0001) model. Therefore, we have decided to consider the course of processes separately for each study plot (Table 2, Fig 5). Not only the major difference between the study plots is conspicuous, but also the fact that the process of change occurring in each of them is best described by different models. In the case of the Kopieniec track, linear fit does not significantly deviate from the negative exponential and Weibull fits (Table 3), whereas for the control area, the level of Weibull fit was significantly higher than the linear and negative exponential. On the other hand, as regards the Murowaniec-Waksmundzka section, the best fit–significantly higher than the linear and negative exponential–both for trees growing near the track and in the reference area, was shown by the line representing a 3rd degree polynomial function (Tables 2 and 3). In this case, the parallelism of these lines was compared [45], demonstrating significant differences (f = 2.0896; p = 0.0053).

Bottom Line: As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest.The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process.This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Environment Sciences, Faculty of Ecology, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus