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Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

Ciapała S, Adamski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest.The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process.This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Environment Sciences, Faculty of Ecology, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Study plots location in the Tatra National Park.A—"Cyrla-Kopieniec", B—"Hala Gąsienicowa—Rówień Waksmundzka".
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pone.0136830.g001: Study plots location in the Tatra National Park.A—"Cyrla-Kopieniec", B—"Hala Gąsienicowa—Rówień Waksmundzka".

Mentions: Two tourist tracks located in spruce forests of the Polish Tatra National Park were selected for the study, following the consent of the Park authority (Fig 1). The first one, Cyrla-Kopieniec, intersects the lower montane spruce stand in elevation between 1000 to 1200m above sea level. A considerable part of the studied track runs along a ravine where rainwater flows. This was probably the course originally marked out for the track. Currently, two banks are in use where broad paths have been trodden, reaching up to 2m in width in some places. Most of the track is devastated by hiking traffic–soil is largely exposed and tree roots are bared. The ground around the trees is usually circularly trampled. Another factor with a harmful effect on the condition of the track is its direction perpendicular to the slope contours, which facilitates erosion. The second track, Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka, traverses upper montane forests, sometimes running along the timber line. It features considerable elevation differences from 1440 m and 1560m above sea level. Approximately 65% of the track length runs along the slope contours and 35% of the route runs perpendicularly, which is clearly visible from the level of soil damage. Most of the track has the form of an unadapted path–narrow, largely muddy, with many bare roots of trees trampled around from one or both sides.


Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

Ciapała S, Adamski P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Study plots location in the Tatra National Park.A—"Cyrla-Kopieniec", B—"Hala Gąsienicowa—Rówień Waksmundzka".
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556516&req=5

pone.0136830.g001: Study plots location in the Tatra National Park.A—"Cyrla-Kopieniec", B—"Hala Gąsienicowa—Rówień Waksmundzka".
Mentions: Two tourist tracks located in spruce forests of the Polish Tatra National Park were selected for the study, following the consent of the Park authority (Fig 1). The first one, Cyrla-Kopieniec, intersects the lower montane spruce stand in elevation between 1000 to 1200m above sea level. A considerable part of the studied track runs along a ravine where rainwater flows. This was probably the course originally marked out for the track. Currently, two banks are in use where broad paths have been trodden, reaching up to 2m in width in some places. Most of the track is devastated by hiking traffic–soil is largely exposed and tree roots are bared. The ground around the trees is usually circularly trampled. Another factor with a harmful effect on the condition of the track is its direction perpendicular to the slope contours, which facilitates erosion. The second track, Hala Gąsienicowa–Rówień Waksmundzka, traverses upper montane forests, sometimes running along the timber line. It features considerable elevation differences from 1440 m and 1560m above sea level. Approximately 65% of the track length runs along the slope contours and 35% of the route runs perpendicularly, which is clearly visible from the level of soil damage. Most of the track has the form of an unadapted path–narrow, largely muddy, with many bare roots of trees trampled around from one or both sides.

Bottom Line: As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest.The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process.This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Environment Sciences, Faculty of Ecology, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus