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Ultrasonographic examination of the spinal cord and collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the atlanto-occipital space in cattle.

Braun U, Attiger J, Brammertz C - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: In group A, the mean distance between the skin and subarachnoid space was 38.6 mm, the mean depth of the subarachnoid space dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord was 8.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively, the mean diameter of the spinal cord was 9.9 mm and the mean diameter of the dural sac was 26.9 mm.These measurements were similar on transverse images.All CSF samples from group A were colourless and clear and the median erythrocyte count was 2.5/μl.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland. ubraun@vetclinics.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study describes the ultrasonographic appearance of the atlanto-occipital space and ultrasound-guided collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cattle. The atlanto-occipital space of 73 euthanized cattle (group A) and 14 live cattle with neurological disorders (group B) was examined in the sagittal and transverse planes using a 5.0-MHz convex transducer. Optimal ultrasonograms were frozen on the screen and various variables were measured in both planes using the electronic cursors. Puncture of the subarachnoid space was achieved using a spinal needle introduced in the median plane in a caudoventral direction while the spinal cord was viewed in longitudinal section. The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was limited to gross evaluation and a red blood cell count.

Results: The spinal cord and the subarachnoid space were seen in the sagittal plane in all cattle. In group A, the mean distance between the skin and subarachnoid space was 38.6 mm, the mean depth of the subarachnoid space dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord was 8.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively, the mean diameter of the spinal cord was 9.9 mm and the mean diameter of the dural sac was 26.9 mm. These measurements were similar on transverse images. For collection of CSF from the subarachnoid space, the spinal cord was viewed in longitudinal section. All CSF samples from group A were colourless and clear and the median erythrocyte count was 2.5/μl. Ultrasonographic findings and results of CSF analysis were similar in group B.

Conclusions: Ultrasonography is useful for the visualisation of the spinal cord and facilitates the safe collection of CSF from the atlanto-occipital space in cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal. Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal in a 5.7-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow at the level of the atlanto-occipital space immediately after euthanasia. a Distance between skin and arachnoidea, b Dorsal compartment of the subarachnoid space, c Spinal cord, d Ventral compartment of the subarachnoid space, 1 Atlanto-occipital membrane, 2 Venous sinus within the epidural space, 3 Dura mater and arachnoidea, 4 Central canal, 5 Denticulate ligament, 6 Skin, 7 Nuchal ligament, 8 Major rectus capitis muscle, 9 Minor rectus capitis muscle
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Fig4: Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal. Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal in a 5.7-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow at the level of the atlanto-occipital space immediately after euthanasia. a Distance between skin and arachnoidea, b Dorsal compartment of the subarachnoid space, c Spinal cord, d Ventral compartment of the subarachnoid space, 1 Atlanto-occipital membrane, 2 Venous sinus within the epidural space, 3 Dura mater and arachnoidea, 4 Central canal, 5 Denticulate ligament, 6 Skin, 7 Nuchal ligament, 8 Major rectus capitis muscle, 9 Minor rectus capitis muscle

Mentions: The spinal cord and the surrounding structures could be seen in the sagittal and transverse planes in all cattle of group A. The structures identified in the area of the atlanto-occipital space from dorsal to ventral were the skin, nuchal ligament, parts of the rectus capitis dorsalis minor and major muscles, the atlanto-occipital membrane and the vertebral canal, surrounded by the hyperechoic dura mater. In the sagittal plane, the muscles appeared as echoic structures with longitudinal striations, and the nuchal ligament was hypoechoic. The spinal cord appeared as a hypoechoic band, and some areas had a heterogeneous internal structure (Fig. 3). The subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord was seen dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord and was anechoic to hypoechoic and sometimes had a heterogeneous internal structure. Blood vessels often seen dorsolateral and adjacent to the dura mater were interpreted as venous sinuses based on findings in the horse [15]. The spinal cord was circular and completely surrounded by the subarachnoid space in cross-section (Fig. 4). The hyperechoic denticulate ligaments between the pia mater and dura mater were often seen on both sides of the spinal cord. The central canal was frequently seen as a hyperechoic structure in the middle of the spinal cord. The pia mater appeared as an echoic line adjacent to the spinal cord. The dura mater and arachnoid membrane were also seen as a hyperechoic line but could not be differentiated.Fig. 3


Ultrasonographic examination of the spinal cord and collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the atlanto-occipital space in cattle.

Braun U, Attiger J, Brammertz C - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal. Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal in a 5.7-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow at the level of the atlanto-occipital space immediately after euthanasia. a Distance between skin and arachnoidea, b Dorsal compartment of the subarachnoid space, c Spinal cord, d Ventral compartment of the subarachnoid space, 1 Atlanto-occipital membrane, 2 Venous sinus within the epidural space, 3 Dura mater and arachnoidea, 4 Central canal, 5 Denticulate ligament, 6 Skin, 7 Nuchal ligament, 8 Major rectus capitis muscle, 9 Minor rectus capitis muscle
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556321&req=5

Fig4: Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal. Transverse ultrasonogram of the vertebral canal in a 5.7-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow at the level of the atlanto-occipital space immediately after euthanasia. a Distance between skin and arachnoidea, b Dorsal compartment of the subarachnoid space, c Spinal cord, d Ventral compartment of the subarachnoid space, 1 Atlanto-occipital membrane, 2 Venous sinus within the epidural space, 3 Dura mater and arachnoidea, 4 Central canal, 5 Denticulate ligament, 6 Skin, 7 Nuchal ligament, 8 Major rectus capitis muscle, 9 Minor rectus capitis muscle
Mentions: The spinal cord and the surrounding structures could be seen in the sagittal and transverse planes in all cattle of group A. The structures identified in the area of the atlanto-occipital space from dorsal to ventral were the skin, nuchal ligament, parts of the rectus capitis dorsalis minor and major muscles, the atlanto-occipital membrane and the vertebral canal, surrounded by the hyperechoic dura mater. In the sagittal plane, the muscles appeared as echoic structures with longitudinal striations, and the nuchal ligament was hypoechoic. The spinal cord appeared as a hypoechoic band, and some areas had a heterogeneous internal structure (Fig. 3). The subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord was seen dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord and was anechoic to hypoechoic and sometimes had a heterogeneous internal structure. Blood vessels often seen dorsolateral and adjacent to the dura mater were interpreted as venous sinuses based on findings in the horse [15]. The spinal cord was circular and completely surrounded by the subarachnoid space in cross-section (Fig. 4). The hyperechoic denticulate ligaments between the pia mater and dura mater were often seen on both sides of the spinal cord. The central canal was frequently seen as a hyperechoic structure in the middle of the spinal cord. The pia mater appeared as an echoic line adjacent to the spinal cord. The dura mater and arachnoid membrane were also seen as a hyperechoic line but could not be differentiated.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: In group A, the mean distance between the skin and subarachnoid space was 38.6 mm, the mean depth of the subarachnoid space dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord was 8.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively, the mean diameter of the spinal cord was 9.9 mm and the mean diameter of the dural sac was 26.9 mm.These measurements were similar on transverse images.All CSF samples from group A were colourless and clear and the median erythrocyte count was 2.5/μl.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Farm Animals, Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland. ubraun@vetclinics.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study describes the ultrasonographic appearance of the atlanto-occipital space and ultrasound-guided collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cattle. The atlanto-occipital space of 73 euthanized cattle (group A) and 14 live cattle with neurological disorders (group B) was examined in the sagittal and transverse planes using a 5.0-MHz convex transducer. Optimal ultrasonograms were frozen on the screen and various variables were measured in both planes using the electronic cursors. Puncture of the subarachnoid space was achieved using a spinal needle introduced in the median plane in a caudoventral direction while the spinal cord was viewed in longitudinal section. The examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was limited to gross evaluation and a red blood cell count.

Results: The spinal cord and the subarachnoid space were seen in the sagittal plane in all cattle. In group A, the mean distance between the skin and subarachnoid space was 38.6 mm, the mean depth of the subarachnoid space dorsal and ventral to the spinal cord was 8.9 mm and 8.4 mm, respectively, the mean diameter of the spinal cord was 9.9 mm and the mean diameter of the dural sac was 26.9 mm. These measurements were similar on transverse images. For collection of CSF from the subarachnoid space, the spinal cord was viewed in longitudinal section. All CSF samples from group A were colourless and clear and the median erythrocyte count was 2.5/μl. Ultrasonographic findings and results of CSF analysis were similar in group B.

Conclusions: Ultrasonography is useful for the visualisation of the spinal cord and facilitates the safe collection of CSF from the atlanto-occipital space in cattle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus