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Spherulitic copper-copper oxide nanostructure-based highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor.

Das G, Tran TQ, Yoon HH - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, this electrode was found to be resistant to interference by common interfering agents such as urea, cystamine, L-ascorbic acid, and creatinine.The high performance of the Cu-CuO spherulites with nanowire-to-nanorod outgrowths was primarily due to the high surface area and stability, and good three-dimensional structure.Furthermore, the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuOB electrode applied to real urine and serum sample showed satisfactory performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea.

ABSTRACT
In this work, three different spherulitic nanostructures Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC were synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsions by varying the surfactant concentration (30 mM, 40 mM, and 50 mM, respectively). The structural and morphological characteristics of the Cu-CuO nanostructures were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The synthesized nanostructures were deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes to fabricate a nonenzymatic highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor. The performance of the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuO electrodes in the glucose assay was examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric studies. The sensitivity of the sensor varied with the spherulite type; Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC exhibited a sensitivity of 1,229, 3,012, and 3,642 µA mM(-1)·cm(-2), respectively. Moreover, the linear range is dependent on the structure types: 0.023-0.29 mM, 0.07-0.8 mM, and 0.023-0.34 mM for Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC, respectively. An excellent response time of 3 seconds and a low detection limit of 2 µM were observed for Cu-CuOB at an applied potential of +0.34 V. In addition, this electrode was found to be resistant to interference by common interfering agents such as urea, cystamine, L-ascorbic acid, and creatinine. The high performance of the Cu-CuO spherulites with nanowire-to-nanorod outgrowths was primarily due to the high surface area and stability, and good three-dimensional structure. Furthermore, the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuOB electrode applied to real urine and serum sample showed satisfactory performance.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic representation of the possible growth mechanism of the nanostructures.Abbreviation: CTAB, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.
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f2-ijn-10-165: Schematic representation of the possible growth mechanism of the nanostructures.Abbreviation: CTAB, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.

Mentions: The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the nanostructures at low and high magnifications are shown in Figure 1. These images indicate that almost all structures show spherulitic growth. As can be visualized from the SEM micrographs, the structures are composed of a central core with clearly thin nanorod and nanowire outgrowths that radiate from the core to all directions, giving the structure a blooming appearance. The core of the nanostructures has a diameter of 100–150 nm, whereas the radial outgrowths were several nanometers long and 15–50 nm in diameter. Careful observation of the nano-architecture revealed that the outgrowths remained attached to the central core after prolonged time, suggesting that they were integrated in the structure and not just mere aggregations. A proposed mechanism is shown in Figure 2. The formation of reverse micelles by CTAB in oil-in-water systems has been well-documented in the literature.15,16 However, there are no reports on the growth of such spherulitic structures by reverse micelle method. The high resistance of the toluene-in-water microemulsion is in agreement with previous findings for spherical inverse micelle formation.21 In these vesicles, the metal ion preferentially resides in the interior pool of water, forming Cu2+–Ac− interactions with the ionic head group of CTAB. After, the addition of the reducing agent, there is a reduction of Cu2+ in the interior, and the individual particles may coalesce to form larger spherical particles. These particles then serve as the seeds or nuclei from which the outgrowths merge.


Spherulitic copper-copper oxide nanostructure-based highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor.

Das G, Tran TQ, Yoon HH - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Schematic representation of the possible growth mechanism of the nanostructures.Abbreviation: CTAB, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556295&req=5

f2-ijn-10-165: Schematic representation of the possible growth mechanism of the nanostructures.Abbreviation: CTAB, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.
Mentions: The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the nanostructures at low and high magnifications are shown in Figure 1. These images indicate that almost all structures show spherulitic growth. As can be visualized from the SEM micrographs, the structures are composed of a central core with clearly thin nanorod and nanowire outgrowths that radiate from the core to all directions, giving the structure a blooming appearance. The core of the nanostructures has a diameter of 100–150 nm, whereas the radial outgrowths were several nanometers long and 15–50 nm in diameter. Careful observation of the nano-architecture revealed that the outgrowths remained attached to the central core after prolonged time, suggesting that they were integrated in the structure and not just mere aggregations. A proposed mechanism is shown in Figure 2. The formation of reverse micelles by CTAB in oil-in-water systems has been well-documented in the literature.15,16 However, there are no reports on the growth of such spherulitic structures by reverse micelle method. The high resistance of the toluene-in-water microemulsion is in agreement with previous findings for spherical inverse micelle formation.21 In these vesicles, the metal ion preferentially resides in the interior pool of water, forming Cu2+–Ac− interactions with the ionic head group of CTAB. After, the addition of the reducing agent, there is a reduction of Cu2+ in the interior, and the individual particles may coalesce to form larger spherical particles. These particles then serve as the seeds or nuclei from which the outgrowths merge.

Bottom Line: In addition, this electrode was found to be resistant to interference by common interfering agents such as urea, cystamine, L-ascorbic acid, and creatinine.The high performance of the Cu-CuO spherulites with nanowire-to-nanorod outgrowths was primarily due to the high surface area and stability, and good three-dimensional structure.Furthermore, the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuOB electrode applied to real urine and serum sample showed satisfactory performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea.

ABSTRACT
In this work, three different spherulitic nanostructures Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC were synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsions by varying the surfactant concentration (30 mM, 40 mM, and 50 mM, respectively). The structural and morphological characteristics of the Cu-CuO nanostructures were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The synthesized nanostructures were deposited on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes to fabricate a nonenzymatic highly sensitive amperometric glucose sensor. The performance of the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuO electrodes in the glucose assay was examined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric studies. The sensitivity of the sensor varied with the spherulite type; Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC exhibited a sensitivity of 1,229, 3,012, and 3,642 µA mM(-1)·cm(-2), respectively. Moreover, the linear range is dependent on the structure types: 0.023-0.29 mM, 0.07-0.8 mM, and 0.023-0.34 mM for Cu-CuOA, Cu-CuOB, and Cu-CuOC, respectively. An excellent response time of 3 seconds and a low detection limit of 2 µM were observed for Cu-CuOB at an applied potential of +0.34 V. In addition, this electrode was found to be resistant to interference by common interfering agents such as urea, cystamine, L-ascorbic acid, and creatinine. The high performance of the Cu-CuO spherulites with nanowire-to-nanorod outgrowths was primarily due to the high surface area and stability, and good three-dimensional structure. Furthermore, the ITO/MWCNT/Cu-CuOB electrode applied to real urine and serum sample showed satisfactory performance.

No MeSH data available.