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Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization.

Frías Á, Palma C, Farriols N, González L - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Bottom Line: Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD-OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other.Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa.To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain ; Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró - CSdM, Mataró, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category.

Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders.

Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria.

Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD-OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD-OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa.

Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Divergences and similarities between patients with OCD vs BDD from comparative studies.Abbreviations: OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder; BDD, body dysmorphic disorder.
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f3-ndt-11-2233: Divergences and similarities between patients with OCD vs BDD from comparative studies.Abbreviations: OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder; BDD, body dysmorphic disorder.

Mentions: The second goal of this review was to assess potential etiopathogenic pathways that might explain the comorbidity of BDD and OCD. The main findings concerning: 1) common shared factors (genetics and environmental influences, socio-demographic profile, cognitive correlates, personality features, psychiatric comorbidity, and symptom co-occurrence); 2) one disorder being a risk factor for the other (vulnerability model); and 3) chance association (random co-occurrence) are described. The overall results from the common shared factors are illustrated in Figure 3.


Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization.

Frías Á, Palma C, Farriols N, González L - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Divergences and similarities between patients with OCD vs BDD from comparative studies.Abbreviations: OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder; BDD, body dysmorphic disorder.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556261&req=5

f3-ndt-11-2233: Divergences and similarities between patients with OCD vs BDD from comparative studies.Abbreviations: OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder; BDD, body dysmorphic disorder.
Mentions: The second goal of this review was to assess potential etiopathogenic pathways that might explain the comorbidity of BDD and OCD. The main findings concerning: 1) common shared factors (genetics and environmental influences, socio-demographic profile, cognitive correlates, personality features, psychiatric comorbidity, and symptom co-occurrence); 2) one disorder being a risk factor for the other (vulnerability model); and 3) chance association (random co-occurrence) are described. The overall results from the common shared factors are illustrated in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD-OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other.Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa.To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain ; Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró - CSdM, Mataró, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD) category.

Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders.

Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria.

Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD-OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%). However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD-OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa.

Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia should be carried out.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus