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Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate.

Hou CP, Lin YH, Hsieh MC, Chen CL, Chang PL, Huang YC, Tsui KH - Patient Prefer Adherence (2015)

Bottom Line: The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review.All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.

Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.

Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

Conclusion: Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results showing that the pain score was normally distributed.
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f3-ppa-9-1207: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results showing that the pain score was normally distributed.

Mentions: The clinical characteristics of the patients are summarized in Table 1. The median patient age, prostate volume, and mean pain score was 63 years (range: 43–87), 32.40 g (range: 10.3–162.00), and 2.87 (range: 0–9), respectively. The distribution of the pain score is presented in Figure 2. No pain (VAS =0) was reported by 53 patients (10.64%), mild pain (VAS =1–3) was described by 318 patients (63.86%), and moderate pain (VAS =4–5) was indicated by 107 (21.49%) patients. However, 60 patients (12.05%) reported experiencing severe pain (VAS =6–10) during the examination. The normal distribution of this result was confirmed through the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (Figure 3).


Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate.

Hou CP, Lin YH, Hsieh MC, Chen CL, Chang PL, Huang YC, Tsui KH - Patient Prefer Adherence (2015)

Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results showing that the pain score was normally distributed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556256&req=5

f3-ppa-9-1207: Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results showing that the pain score was normally distributed.
Mentions: The clinical characteristics of the patients are summarized in Table 1. The median patient age, prostate volume, and mean pain score was 63 years (range: 43–87), 32.40 g (range: 10.3–162.00), and 2.87 (range: 0–9), respectively. The distribution of the pain score is presented in Figure 2. No pain (VAS =0) was reported by 53 patients (10.64%), mild pain (VAS =1–3) was described by 318 patients (63.86%), and moderate pain (VAS =4–5) was indicated by 107 (21.49%) patients. However, 60 patients (12.05%) reported experiencing severe pain (VAS =6–10) during the examination. The normal distribution of this result was confirmed through the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review.All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.

Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.

Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

Conclusion: Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus