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Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate.

Hou CP, Lin YH, Hsieh MC, Chen CL, Chang PL, Huang YC, Tsui KH - Patient Prefer Adherence (2015)

Bottom Line: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination.Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.

Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.

Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

Conclusion: Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Image shows artifact caused by stool stored in the rectum and interfered with the image quality. The examiner cannot easily measure the prostate sagittal length.
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f1-ppa-9-1207: Image shows artifact caused by stool stored in the rectum and interfered with the image quality. The examiner cannot easily measure the prostate sagittal length.

Mentions: The patients were randomized into two groups according to medical chart number (odd, group 1; even, group 2). The group 1 patients received the TRUS examination according to the routine procedure of the hospital. By contrast, the group 2 patients received a detailed explanation of the examination procedure immediately before the examination began. In addition, a monitor was placed next to them, enabling them to observe the real-time images during the entire examination. Transrectal ultrasound was performed on the patients by a single urologist using an ultrasound machine (Prosound Alpha 6, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) fitted with a 7.5 MHz biplanar transrectal probe. The prostate volume was measured using the ellipse formula (sagittal length × width × height ×0.52). Whether the patients had stool stored in the rectum that interfered with the image quality (Figure 1) was recorded. Immediately following the examination, the patients completed a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire, evaluating the pain experienced during the TRUS on a scale of 0–10. After the patients rated the pain by marking a line to indicate pain level, a rounding method was used to obtain an integer.


Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate.

Hou CP, Lin YH, Hsieh MC, Chen CL, Chang PL, Huang YC, Tsui KH - Patient Prefer Adherence (2015)

Image shows artifact caused by stool stored in the rectum and interfered with the image quality. The examiner cannot easily measure the prostate sagittal length.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556256&req=5

f1-ppa-9-1207: Image shows artifact caused by stool stored in the rectum and interfered with the image quality. The examiner cannot easily measure the prostate sagittal length.
Mentions: The patients were randomized into two groups according to medical chart number (odd, group 1; even, group 2). The group 1 patients received the TRUS examination according to the routine procedure of the hospital. By contrast, the group 2 patients received a detailed explanation of the examination procedure immediately before the examination began. In addition, a monitor was placed next to them, enabling them to observe the real-time images during the entire examination. Transrectal ultrasound was performed on the patients by a single urologist using an ultrasound machine (Prosound Alpha 6, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) fitted with a 7.5 MHz biplanar transrectal probe. The prostate volume was measured using the ellipse formula (sagittal length × width × height ×0.52). Whether the patients had stool stored in the rectum that interfered with the image quality (Figure 1) was recorded. Immediately following the examination, the patients completed a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire, evaluating the pain experienced during the TRUS on a scale of 0–10. After the patients rated the pain by marking a line to indicate pain level, a rounding method was used to obtain an integer.

Bottom Line: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination.Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan ; School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.

Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.

Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and allowed them to observe the real-time images during the examination.

Conclusion: Although a TRUS examination is uncomfortable for patients, after having identified the factors affecting pain, physicians can assist patients in reducing pain during the procedure, thus providing higher quality examinations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus