Limits...
A global phylogeny of Pelomedusoides turtles with new material of Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit, of Germany.

Cadena E - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715.Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults.A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Senckenberg Naturmuseum , Frankfurt am Main , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Background. Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 is the only pleurodire or side-necked turtle from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit (the first UNESCO, World Natural Heritage Site in Germany, since 1995). The original description of the species is based on two specimens SMF ME 1091 (Holotype) and 715 (Paratype) housed at the Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt. The excellent preservation of complete and articulated skeletons of this species makes it a key taxon for understanding the evolution and phylogeny of the European Neochelys genus and its relationships with South American and African-Madagascar podocnemidids. Results. Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715. Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults. A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic trees for Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae including Neochelys franzeni.(A) Atrict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), including only bothremydids. (B) Strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304), including only podocnemidids (molecular plus morphologic data). (C) Adams consensus of the tree in (B), showing the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa. Bootstrap values (left of the slash), and Bremer support values (right of the slash).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556147&req=5

fig-9: Phylogenetic trees for Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae including Neochelys franzeni.(A) Atrict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), including only bothremydids. (B) Strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304), including only podocnemidids (molecular plus morphologic data). (C) Adams consensus of the tree in (B), showing the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa. Bootstrap values (left of the slash), and Bremer support values (right of the slash).

Mentions: In order to explore potentially better resolve clades, with fewer polytomies inside Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae clades, focused analyses were run in PAUP for each of these clades. The first included only Bothremydidae, and excluded all taxa basal to Phosphatochelys tedfordi in Fig. 8, and as for the other previous runs, molecular data was excluded. The strict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (Fig. 9A) (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), shows agreement with trees obtained by previous studies (Gaffney, Tong & Meylan, 2006, Fig. 288; Romano et al., 2014, Fig. 2), at least for the major groups (Kurmademydini, Cearachelyini, Bothremydini, and Taphrosphynini). Compared to Gaffney, Tong & Meylan (2006 Fig. 1 and 288), Foxemydina (including Puentemys mushaisaensisCadena, Bloch & Jaramillo, 2012) is found outside Bothremydodda; Romano et al. (2014) obtained a similar result, but with Foxemydina in a polytomy with Bothremydini and Taphrosphyini. Sankuchemys sethnai (Singh et al., 1998) as also obtained by Romano et al. (2014) is placed outside Kurmademydini. The second focused analysis—of Podocnemididae—included all taxa from Fig. 8 (except Bothremydidae). For that, molecular data were added to the parsimony analysis, in order to improve resolution between extant species. The strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (Fig. 9B) (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304) with the present, enlarged morphological character list shows the same topology obtained in Cadena et al. (2012), Fig. 7B) for extant species of Podocnemis and Cerrejonemys wayuunaiki (Cadena, Bloch & Jaramillo, 2010). Neochelys (exclusive of “N.” fajumensis) is inferred to be the sister taxon of the clade Erymnochelys madagascariensis + Peltocephalus dumerilianus, which is in contrast to Gaffney et al. (2011), Fig. 98), who found it to be closely related to Stereogenyina. Carbonemys cofriniiCadena et al. (2012) is found here to be the sister taxon of Caninemys tridentataMeylan, Gaffney & Campos (2009). Unresolved polytomies remain inside Stereogenyina, for example Bairdemys spp. and the clade formed by Brontochelys gaffneyiGaffney et al., 2011, Lemurchelys diasphaxGaffney et al., 2011, Latenemys plowdeniGaffney et al., 2011 and Cordichelys antiquaAndrews, 1903 (sensuGaffney et al., 2011). Missing data (the shell of only one of the four species of Bairdemys spp., for instance, is known) as well as the exclusion of species specific characters in the analysis could be consider as a potential reason for these polytomies. Despite of the polytomies found inside Stereogenyina, the clade Shweboemys pilgrimi + Stereogenys cromeri was also found here, as in Gaffney et al. (2011). Adams consensus was obtained in order to explore the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa (Fig. 9C), showing for example that N. laurentii, N. eocaenica, N. zamorensis, and N. salmanticensis form a clade, and that N. franzeni and N. arenarum are in polytomy at the base of Neochelys clade.


A global phylogeny of Pelomedusoides turtles with new material of Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit, of Germany.

Cadena E - PeerJ (2015)

Phylogenetic trees for Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae including Neochelys franzeni.(A) Atrict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), including only bothremydids. (B) Strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304), including only podocnemidids (molecular plus morphologic data). (C) Adams consensus of the tree in (B), showing the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa. Bootstrap values (left of the slash), and Bremer support values (right of the slash).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556147&req=5

fig-9: Phylogenetic trees for Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae including Neochelys franzeni.(A) Atrict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), including only bothremydids. (B) Strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304), including only podocnemidids (molecular plus morphologic data). (C) Adams consensus of the tree in (B), showing the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa. Bootstrap values (left of the slash), and Bremer support values (right of the slash).
Mentions: In order to explore potentially better resolve clades, with fewer polytomies inside Bothremydidae and Podocnemididae clades, focused analyses were run in PAUP for each of these clades. The first included only Bothremydidae, and excluded all taxa basal to Phosphatochelys tedfordi in Fig. 8, and as for the other previous runs, molecular data was excluded. The strict consensus tree of 9 most parsimonious trees (Fig. 9A) (TL = 454; CI = 0.551; RC = 0.448; and HI = 0.489), shows agreement with trees obtained by previous studies (Gaffney, Tong & Meylan, 2006, Fig. 288; Romano et al., 2014, Fig. 2), at least for the major groups (Kurmademydini, Cearachelyini, Bothremydini, and Taphrosphynini). Compared to Gaffney, Tong & Meylan (2006 Fig. 1 and 288), Foxemydina (including Puentemys mushaisaensisCadena, Bloch & Jaramillo, 2012) is found outside Bothremydodda; Romano et al. (2014) obtained a similar result, but with Foxemydina in a polytomy with Bothremydini and Taphrosphyini. Sankuchemys sethnai (Singh et al., 1998) as also obtained by Romano et al. (2014) is placed outside Kurmademydini. The second focused analysis—of Podocnemididae—included all taxa from Fig. 8 (except Bothremydidae). For that, molecular data were added to the parsimony analysis, in order to improve resolution between extant species. The strict consensus tree of 17,572 most-parsimonious trees (Fig. 9B) (TL = 3,176; CI = 0.706; RC = 0.439; HI = 0.304) with the present, enlarged morphological character list shows the same topology obtained in Cadena et al. (2012), Fig. 7B) for extant species of Podocnemis and Cerrejonemys wayuunaiki (Cadena, Bloch & Jaramillo, 2010). Neochelys (exclusive of “N.” fajumensis) is inferred to be the sister taxon of the clade Erymnochelys madagascariensis + Peltocephalus dumerilianus, which is in contrast to Gaffney et al. (2011), Fig. 98), who found it to be closely related to Stereogenyina. Carbonemys cofriniiCadena et al. (2012) is found here to be the sister taxon of Caninemys tridentataMeylan, Gaffney & Campos (2009). Unresolved polytomies remain inside Stereogenyina, for example Bairdemys spp. and the clade formed by Brontochelys gaffneyiGaffney et al., 2011, Lemurchelys diasphaxGaffney et al., 2011, Latenemys plowdeniGaffney et al., 2011 and Cordichelys antiquaAndrews, 1903 (sensuGaffney et al., 2011). Missing data (the shell of only one of the four species of Bairdemys spp., for instance, is known) as well as the exclusion of species specific characters in the analysis could be consider as a potential reason for these polytomies. Despite of the polytomies found inside Stereogenyina, the clade Shweboemys pilgrimi + Stereogenys cromeri was also found here, as in Gaffney et al. (2011). Adams consensus was obtained in order to explore the potential relationships among Neochelys taxa (Fig. 9C), showing for example that N. laurentii, N. eocaenica, N. zamorensis, and N. salmanticensis form a clade, and that N. franzeni and N. arenarum are in polytomy at the base of Neochelys clade.

Bottom Line: Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715.Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults.A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Senckenberg Naturmuseum , Frankfurt am Main , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Background. Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 is the only pleurodire or side-necked turtle from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit (the first UNESCO, World Natural Heritage Site in Germany, since 1995). The original description of the species is based on two specimens SMF ME 1091 (Holotype) and 715 (Paratype) housed at the Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt. The excellent preservation of complete and articulated skeletons of this species makes it a key taxon for understanding the evolution and phylogeny of the European Neochelys genus and its relationships with South American and African-Madagascar podocnemidids. Results. Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715. Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults. A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

No MeSH data available.