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A global phylogeny of Pelomedusoides turtles with new material of Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit, of Germany.

Cadena E - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715.Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults.A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Senckenberg Naturmuseum , Frankfurt am Main , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Background. Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 is the only pleurodire or side-necked turtle from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit (the first UNESCO, World Natural Heritage Site in Germany, since 1995). The original description of the species is based on two specimens SMF ME 1091 (Holotype) and 715 (Paratype) housed at the Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt. The excellent preservation of complete and articulated skeletons of this species makes it a key taxon for understanding the evolution and phylogeny of the European Neochelys genus and its relationships with South American and African-Madagascar podocnemidids. Results. Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715. Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults. A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neochelys franzeni SMF ME 1267 skull and extant podocnemidids.(A)–(B) Skull in dorsal view. (C)–(D) Skull in ventral view. (F)–(G) Skull in left lateral view. (H)–(I) Skull in anterior view. (J)–(K) Cervical vertebrae 3 and 4 in ventrolateral view. Erymnochelys madagascariensis NMW 422: L, cervical 4 in ventral view. Podocnemis expansa AMNH 62947: M, cervical 4 in ventral view. Abbreviations: fpct, foramen posterius chorda tympani; cc, cervical centrum; fnh, foramen nervi hypoglossi; fpcci; foramen posterior canalis caroticum interni; fpp, foramen platinum posterius; fpr, foramen praepalatinum; fso, foramen supraorbitale; fst, foramen stapedio-temporale; pk, posterolateral keel, ptp, processus trochlearis pterygoidei; SO, supraoccipital scute; tp, transversal process (see Fig. 4 for the other abbreviations). Rock matrix shadowed in orange.
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fig-7: Neochelys franzeni SMF ME 1267 skull and extant podocnemidids.(A)–(B) Skull in dorsal view. (C)–(D) Skull in ventral view. (F)–(G) Skull in left lateral view. (H)–(I) Skull in anterior view. (J)–(K) Cervical vertebrae 3 and 4 in ventrolateral view. Erymnochelys madagascariensis NMW 422: L, cervical 4 in ventral view. Podocnemis expansa AMNH 62947: M, cervical 4 in ventral view. Abbreviations: fpct, foramen posterius chorda tympani; cc, cervical centrum; fnh, foramen nervi hypoglossi; fpcci; foramen posterior canalis caroticum interni; fpp, foramen platinum posterius; fpr, foramen praepalatinum; fso, foramen supraorbitale; fst, foramen stapedio-temporale; pk, posterolateral keel, ptp, processus trochlearis pterygoidei; SO, supraoccipital scute; tp, transversal process (see Fig. 4 for the other abbreviations). Rock matrix shadowed in orange.

Mentions: SMF ME 715, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 2A–2D and 4C–4FSupplemental Information 1, plate 2), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, right ceratobrachial 2 bone, left femur, both humeri, and some elements of left manus and both pes; HLMD-Me 14981, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 3A–3D and 5C–5D, Supplemental Information 1, plates 3 and 4), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, right forelimb articulated, some of the right manus bones, and the right hindlimb articulated; HLMD-Me 15576, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 3E–3H and 5A–5B, Supplemental Information 1, plate 5), including carapace (missing most of right posterior and middle peripherals), plastron, skull and mandible, most of right hindlimb and left femur; HLMD-Me 15375, nearly complete articulated skeleton, extremely crushed and poorly preserved, including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, and some elements of the left hindlimb) (Supplemental Information 1, plate 7); NR 202 / 617, almost complete articulated carapace and skull, with most of the both pes bones (Figs. 3I–3J, Supplemental Information 1, plate 8); SMF ME 1267, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 5E–5F, 6 and 7A–7K), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, three cervical vertebrae, some left and right phalanges, some left pes bones, and the almost complete articulated right pes.


A global phylogeny of Pelomedusoides turtles with new material of Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit, of Germany.

Cadena E - PeerJ (2015)

Neochelys franzeni SMF ME 1267 skull and extant podocnemidids.(A)–(B) Skull in dorsal view. (C)–(D) Skull in ventral view. (F)–(G) Skull in left lateral view. (H)–(I) Skull in anterior view. (J)–(K) Cervical vertebrae 3 and 4 in ventrolateral view. Erymnochelys madagascariensis NMW 422: L, cervical 4 in ventral view. Podocnemis expansa AMNH 62947: M, cervical 4 in ventral view. Abbreviations: fpct, foramen posterius chorda tympani; cc, cervical centrum; fnh, foramen nervi hypoglossi; fpcci; foramen posterior canalis caroticum interni; fpp, foramen platinum posterius; fpr, foramen praepalatinum; fso, foramen supraorbitale; fst, foramen stapedio-temporale; pk, posterolateral keel, ptp, processus trochlearis pterygoidei; SO, supraoccipital scute; tp, transversal process (see Fig. 4 for the other abbreviations). Rock matrix shadowed in orange.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556147&req=5

fig-7: Neochelys franzeni SMF ME 1267 skull and extant podocnemidids.(A)–(B) Skull in dorsal view. (C)–(D) Skull in ventral view. (F)–(G) Skull in left lateral view. (H)–(I) Skull in anterior view. (J)–(K) Cervical vertebrae 3 and 4 in ventrolateral view. Erymnochelys madagascariensis NMW 422: L, cervical 4 in ventral view. Podocnemis expansa AMNH 62947: M, cervical 4 in ventral view. Abbreviations: fpct, foramen posterius chorda tympani; cc, cervical centrum; fnh, foramen nervi hypoglossi; fpcci; foramen posterior canalis caroticum interni; fpp, foramen platinum posterius; fpr, foramen praepalatinum; fso, foramen supraorbitale; fst, foramen stapedio-temporale; pk, posterolateral keel, ptp, processus trochlearis pterygoidei; SO, supraoccipital scute; tp, transversal process (see Fig. 4 for the other abbreviations). Rock matrix shadowed in orange.
Mentions: SMF ME 715, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 2A–2D and 4C–4FSupplemental Information 1, plate 2), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, right ceratobrachial 2 bone, left femur, both humeri, and some elements of left manus and both pes; HLMD-Me 14981, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 3A–3D and 5C–5D, Supplemental Information 1, plates 3 and 4), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, right forelimb articulated, some of the right manus bones, and the right hindlimb articulated; HLMD-Me 15576, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 3E–3H and 5A–5B, Supplemental Information 1, plate 5), including carapace (missing most of right posterior and middle peripherals), plastron, skull and mandible, most of right hindlimb and left femur; HLMD-Me 15375, nearly complete articulated skeleton, extremely crushed and poorly preserved, including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, and some elements of the left hindlimb) (Supplemental Information 1, plate 7); NR 202 / 617, almost complete articulated carapace and skull, with most of the both pes bones (Figs. 3I–3J, Supplemental Information 1, plate 8); SMF ME 1267, almost complete articulated skeleton (Figs. 5E–5F, 6 and 7A–7K), including carapace, plastron, skull and mandible, three cervical vertebrae, some left and right phalanges, some left pes bones, and the almost complete articulated right pes.

Bottom Line: Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715.Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults.A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Senckenberg Naturmuseum , Frankfurt am Main , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Background. Neochelys franzeni Schleich, 1993 is the only pleurodire or side-necked turtle from the middle Eocene, Messel Pit (the first UNESCO, World Natural Heritage Site in Germany, since 1995). The original description of the species is based on two specimens SMF ME 1091 (Holotype) and 715 (Paratype) housed at the Senckenberg Museum Frankfurt. The excellent preservation of complete and articulated skeletons of this species makes it a key taxon for understanding the evolution and phylogeny of the European Neochelys genus and its relationships with South American and African-Madagascar podocnemidids. Results. Five new specimens of Neochelys franzeni from Messel Pit are described here, together with the redescription of SMF ME 1091 and 715. Specimens correspond to individuals of different ontogenetic stages showing conservative morphology from hatching to adults. A revised diagnosis for the species is presented here, together with its inclusion in a global phylogenetic analysis of Pelomedusoides that shows that this species and the whole Neochelys spp. is sister to the Erymnochelys madagascariensis-Peltocephalus dumerilianus clade within Podocnemididae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus