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Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls.

Castro-Nallar E, Bendall ML, Pérez-Losada M, Sabuncyan S, Severance EG, Dickerson FB, Schroeder JR, Yolken RH, Crandall KA - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species.In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls.These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Institute, George Washington University , Ashburn, VA , USA ; Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas , Santiago , Chile.

ABSTRACT
The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Microbial metabolic pathways with significantly altered abundances in the schizophrenia oropharyngeal microbiome.MXXXXX codes correspond to KEGG modules, i.e., a collection of manually defined functional units (genes). LDA, linear discriminant analysis.
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fig-3: Microbial metabolic pathways with significantly altered abundances in the schizophrenia oropharyngeal microbiome.MXXXXX codes correspond to KEGG modules, i.e., a collection of manually defined functional units (genes). LDA, linear discriminant analysis.

Mentions: We identified 18 metabolic pathways enriched and 14 decreased in schizophrenia (p value < 0.05; Fig. 3). Pathways significantly associated with schizophrenia were related to environmental information processing, in particular to transport systems such as saccharide, polyol, and lipid transport systems (M00197, M00194, M00200), peptide and nickel transport (M00239), metallic cation, iron-siderophore, and vitamin B12 transport (M00246), and phosphate and amino acid transport (M00222), including glutamate transport (M00233). In turn, pathways found in control individuals, but not in individuals with schizophrenia, were related to energy metabolism, such as ATP synthesis and ATP synthase (M00144, M00150, M00157, M00164) and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, such as central carbohydrate metabolism (M00011, M00009, M00007) and lipopolysaccharide metabolism (M00060).


Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls.

Castro-Nallar E, Bendall ML, Pérez-Losada M, Sabuncyan S, Severance EG, Dickerson FB, Schroeder JR, Yolken RH, Crandall KA - PeerJ (2015)

Microbial metabolic pathways with significantly altered abundances in the schizophrenia oropharyngeal microbiome.MXXXXX codes correspond to KEGG modules, i.e., a collection of manually defined functional units (genes). LDA, linear discriminant analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556144&req=5

fig-3: Microbial metabolic pathways with significantly altered abundances in the schizophrenia oropharyngeal microbiome.MXXXXX codes correspond to KEGG modules, i.e., a collection of manually defined functional units (genes). LDA, linear discriminant analysis.
Mentions: We identified 18 metabolic pathways enriched and 14 decreased in schizophrenia (p value < 0.05; Fig. 3). Pathways significantly associated with schizophrenia were related to environmental information processing, in particular to transport systems such as saccharide, polyol, and lipid transport systems (M00197, M00194, M00200), peptide and nickel transport (M00239), metallic cation, iron-siderophore, and vitamin B12 transport (M00246), and phosphate and amino acid transport (M00222), including glutamate transport (M00233). In turn, pathways found in control individuals, but not in individuals with schizophrenia, were related to energy metabolism, such as ATP synthesis and ATP synthase (M00144, M00150, M00157, M00164) and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, such as central carbohydrate metabolism (M00011, M00009, M00007) and lipopolysaccharide metabolism (M00060).

Bottom Line: We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species.In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls.These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Institute, George Washington University , Ashburn, VA , USA ; Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas , Santiago , Chile.

ABSTRACT
The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus