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Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls.

Castro-Nallar E, Bendall ML, Pérez-Losada M, Sabuncyan S, Severance EG, Dickerson FB, Schroeder JR, Yolken RH, Crandall KA - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species.In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls.These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Institute, George Washington University , Ashburn, VA , USA ; Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas , Santiago , Chile.

ABSTRACT
The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Covariation of community structure shows that diversity patterns of samples correlate with disease status, i.e., schizophrenia and controls, and potentially with smoking (at the genus level).Points represent principal coordinate analysis (PCoA loadings) on Jensen–Shannon Diversity distances. Principal coordinates 1 and 2 in (A) (65% of variance) and principal coordinates 1 and 3 in (B) (63% of variance).
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fig-2: Covariation of community structure shows that diversity patterns of samples correlate with disease status, i.e., schizophrenia and controls, and potentially with smoking (at the genus level).Points represent principal coordinate analysis (PCoA loadings) on Jensen–Shannon Diversity distances. Principal coordinates 1 and 2 in (A) (65% of variance) and principal coordinates 1 and 3 in (B) (63% of variance).

Mentions: We also tested whether microbial composition could differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls by inferring synthetic variables that could explain the variability of the samples at the genus level (PCoA on Jensen–Shannon distance; Fig. 2). We observe that schizophrenia samples tend to group together (first three coordinates = 40%, 25% and 23% of variance, respectively); however, this differentiation seems to be influenced by mental health status and in part by cigarette smoking (Figs. 2A and 2B).


Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls.

Castro-Nallar E, Bendall ML, Pérez-Losada M, Sabuncyan S, Severance EG, Dickerson FB, Schroeder JR, Yolken RH, Crandall KA - PeerJ (2015)

Covariation of community structure shows that diversity patterns of samples correlate with disease status, i.e., schizophrenia and controls, and potentially with smoking (at the genus level).Points represent principal coordinate analysis (PCoA loadings) on Jensen–Shannon Diversity distances. Principal coordinates 1 and 2 in (A) (65% of variance) and principal coordinates 1 and 3 in (B) (63% of variance).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4556144&req=5

fig-2: Covariation of community structure shows that diversity patterns of samples correlate with disease status, i.e., schizophrenia and controls, and potentially with smoking (at the genus level).Points represent principal coordinate analysis (PCoA loadings) on Jensen–Shannon Diversity distances. Principal coordinates 1 and 2 in (A) (65% of variance) and principal coordinates 1 and 3 in (B) (63% of variance).
Mentions: We also tested whether microbial composition could differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls by inferring synthetic variables that could explain the variability of the samples at the genus level (PCoA on Jensen–Shannon distance; Fig. 2). We observe that schizophrenia samples tend to group together (first three coordinates = 40%, 25% and 23% of variance, respectively); however, this differentiation seems to be influenced by mental health status and in part by cigarette smoking (Figs. 2A and 2B).

Bottom Line: We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species.In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls.These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Institute, George Washington University , Ashburn, VA , USA ; Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas , Santiago , Chile.

ABSTRACT
The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus