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Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations.

Pinto C, Pinho D, Cardoso R, Custódio V, Fernandes J, Sousa S, Pinheiro M, Egas C, Gomes AC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms.Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF.Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genomics Unit, Biocant - Biotechnology Innovation Center, Cantanhede Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation - Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines.

No MeSH data available.


Eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microbial community distribution over IM, SF and EF of the Portuguese appellations. Relative abundance of the 10 most abundant eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microorganisms through the genus and family analysis, respectively.
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Figure 5: Eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microbial community distribution over IM, SF and EF of the Portuguese appellations. Relative abundance of the 10 most abundant eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microorganisms through the genus and family analysis, respectively.

Mentions: Regarding the fungal microorganisms that contributed for each wine appellation, the genus Aureobasidium dominated and contributed for an average of 44.39% appellations similarity (Supplementary Table S2). Interestingly, it was observed a regional effect on the contribution of other microorganisms: at Alentejo appellation Lachancea prevailed, contributing for 21.44% of region’s similarity; in the Estremadura appellation Rhodotorula and Botryotinia contributed for 37.96% of the similarity; the Bairrada appellation was characterized by the presence of Hanseniaspora and Ramularia, who contributed for 18.86% of the regional similarity; the Dão appellation was characterized by the presence of microorganisms from the Lachancea and Rhodotorula genera (29.07% of similarity); within Douro appellation, Rhodotorula and Erysiphe contributed with 21.29% for the similarity; and finally, the Minho appellation was characterized by Rhodotorula and Alternaria (40% of similarity; Supplementary Table S2). In general, the fungal populations of IM were characterized by ubiquitous genera as Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula, Hanseniaspora, Alternaria, Metschnikowia, Saccharomyces, Candida, Ramularia, Penicillium, Lewia, Filobasidiella, Leptosphaerulina, and Schizosaccharomyces, forming the principal structure of the microbial populations (Figure 5A).


Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations.

Pinto C, Pinho D, Cardoso R, Custódio V, Fernandes J, Sousa S, Pinheiro M, Egas C, Gomes AC - Front Microbiol (2015)

Eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microbial community distribution over IM, SF and EF of the Portuguese appellations. Relative abundance of the 10 most abundant eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microorganisms through the genus and family analysis, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555975&req=5

Figure 5: Eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microbial community distribution over IM, SF and EF of the Portuguese appellations. Relative abundance of the 10 most abundant eukaryotic (A) and prokaryotic (B) microorganisms through the genus and family analysis, respectively.
Mentions: Regarding the fungal microorganisms that contributed for each wine appellation, the genus Aureobasidium dominated and contributed for an average of 44.39% appellations similarity (Supplementary Table S2). Interestingly, it was observed a regional effect on the contribution of other microorganisms: at Alentejo appellation Lachancea prevailed, contributing for 21.44% of region’s similarity; in the Estremadura appellation Rhodotorula and Botryotinia contributed for 37.96% of the similarity; the Bairrada appellation was characterized by the presence of Hanseniaspora and Ramularia, who contributed for 18.86% of the regional similarity; the Dão appellation was characterized by the presence of microorganisms from the Lachancea and Rhodotorula genera (29.07% of similarity); within Douro appellation, Rhodotorula and Erysiphe contributed with 21.29% for the similarity; and finally, the Minho appellation was characterized by Rhodotorula and Alternaria (40% of similarity; Supplementary Table S2). In general, the fungal populations of IM were characterized by ubiquitous genera as Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula, Hanseniaspora, Alternaria, Metschnikowia, Saccharomyces, Candida, Ramularia, Penicillium, Lewia, Filobasidiella, Leptosphaerulina, and Schizosaccharomyces, forming the principal structure of the microbial populations (Figure 5A).

Bottom Line: The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms.Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF.Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Genomics Unit, Biocant - Biotechnology Innovation Center, Cantanhede Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation - Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines.

No MeSH data available.