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Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4).In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow cytometric evaluation of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on CD18 and CD11b in neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Abbreviations: Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; VH, vehicle-treated group.
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f3-dddt-9-4917: Flow cytometric evaluation of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on CD18 and CD11b in neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Abbreviations: Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; VH, vehicle-treated group.

Mentions: The adhesion and extravasation of neutrophils have been shown to be mainly dependent on upregulation of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). The Mac-1 glycoprotein is generally stored within specialized granules of resting neutrophils and will be translocated to the surface of neutrophils upon activation.55 In this study, the potential effect of P. amarus on the regulation of CD11b and CD18 expression (as a percentage) were investigated. The percentage of CD11b and CD18 expression in neutrophils isolated from extract-treated rats, which was measured using flow cytometry, depicted that the P. amarus treatment during 14 days with three selected doses potentially inhibited Mac-1 expression in neutrophils compared with control group. Significant level of inhibitory activity was observed at higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). A statistical summary of the potential effect of P. amarus on the upregulation of Mac-1 is illustrated in Table 1 and Figure 3.


Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Flow cytometric evaluation of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on CD18 and CD11b in neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Abbreviations: Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; VH, vehicle-treated group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555964&req=5

f3-dddt-9-4917: Flow cytometric evaluation of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on CD18 and CD11b in neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Abbreviations: Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; VH, vehicle-treated group.
Mentions: The adhesion and extravasation of neutrophils have been shown to be mainly dependent on upregulation of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). The Mac-1 glycoprotein is generally stored within specialized granules of resting neutrophils and will be translocated to the surface of neutrophils upon activation.55 In this study, the potential effect of P. amarus on the regulation of CD11b and CD18 expression (as a percentage) were investigated. The percentage of CD11b and CD18 expression in neutrophils isolated from extract-treated rats, which was measured using flow cytometry, depicted that the P. amarus treatment during 14 days with three selected doses potentially inhibited Mac-1 expression in neutrophils compared with control group. Significant level of inhibitory activity was observed at higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). A statistical summary of the potential effect of P. amarus on the upregulation of Mac-1 is illustrated in Table 1 and Figure 3.

Bottom Line: The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4).In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus