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Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4).In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graph of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Notes: Results are represented as mean ± SEM, with n=6 in each group. **P<0.01; *P<0.05. The statistical tests employed were ANOVA, followed by post-Dunnett’s test.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; SEM, standard error of the mean; VH, vehicle-treated group.
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f2-dddt-9-4917: Graph of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Notes: Results are represented as mean ± SEM, with n=6 in each group. **P<0.01; *P<0.05. The statistical tests employed were ANOVA, followed by post-Dunnett’s test.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; SEM, standard error of the mean; VH, vehicle-treated group.

Mentions: To study the effect of P. amarus on a leukocyte migration assay, neutrophils were purified from the blood of rats that were pretreated with or without the 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus. fMLP induced neutrophil chemotaxis under the control conditions, and pretreatment of the rats with extract of P. amarus at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg revealed that the rats administered plant extracts of different doses had dose-dependent reduction in ex vivo neutrophil migration, as shown in Figure 2. The highest level of inhibitory activity of neutrophil migration was observed at the dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), which was comparable to that of the immunosuppressive control drug (cyclophosphamide) used in this study.


Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Graph of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Notes: Results are represented as mean ± SEM, with n=6 in each group. **P<0.01; *P<0.05. The statistical tests employed were ANOVA, followed by post-Dunnett’s test.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; SEM, standard error of the mean; VH, vehicle-treated group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555964&req=5

f2-dddt-9-4917: Graph of the effect of Phyllanthus amarus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils isolated from experimental animals.Notes: Results are represented as mean ± SEM, with n=6 in each group. **P<0.01; *P<0.05. The statistical tests employed were ANOVA, followed by post-Dunnett’s test.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; Cyclo, cyclophosphamide; NSC, nonsensitized control; PA, Phyllanthus amarus; SEM, standard error of the mean; VH, vehicle-treated group.
Mentions: To study the effect of P. amarus on a leukocyte migration assay, neutrophils were purified from the blood of rats that were pretreated with or without the 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus. fMLP induced neutrophil chemotaxis under the control conditions, and pretreatment of the rats with extract of P. amarus at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg revealed that the rats administered plant extracts of different doses had dose-dependent reduction in ex vivo neutrophil migration, as shown in Figure 2. The highest level of inhibitory activity of neutrophil migration was observed at the dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), which was comparable to that of the immunosuppressive control drug (cyclophosphamide) used in this study.

Bottom Line: The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4).In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A-stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for improvement of immune-related disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus