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Genetic structure and diversity of the endangered growling grass frog in a rapidly urbanizing region.

Keely CC, Hale JM, Heard GW, Parris KM, Sumner J, Hamer AJ, Melville J - R Soc Open Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: From a genetic perspective, these impacts manifest as reduced genetic diversity and ultimately reduced genetic viability.The mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences revealed low levels of genetic diversity throughout remnant populations of L. raniformis.We discuss the implications of these results for the conservation of L. raniformis in urbanizing landscapes, particularly the potential risks and benefits of translocation, which remains a contentious management approach for this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of BioSciences , University of Melbourne , Parkville 3010, Australia ; Sciences Department , Museum Victoria , Carlton 3053, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Two pervasive and fundamental impacts of urbanization are the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. From a genetic perspective, these impacts manifest as reduced genetic diversity and ultimately reduced genetic viability. The growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis) is listed as vulnerable to extinction in Australia, and endangered in the state of Victoria. Remaining populations of this species in and around the city of Melbourne are threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation due to urban expansion. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellites to study the genetic structure and diversity of L. raniformis across Melbourne's urban fringe, and also screened four nuclear gene regions (POMC, RAG-1, Rhod and CRYBA1). The mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences revealed low levels of genetic diversity throughout remnant populations of L. raniformis. However, one of the four regions studied, Cardinia, exhibited relatively high genetic diversity and several unique haplotypes, suggesting this region should be recognized as a separate Management Unit. We discuss the implications of these results for the conservation of L. raniformis in urbanizing landscapes, particularly the potential risks and benefits of translocation, which remains a contentious management approach for this species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Geographical association of COI haplotypes. Each pie represents the haplotypes found in that cluster and the area of the pie is proportional to sample size. Clusters have been assigned letters and haplotypes numbered. See included table for the number of individuals displaying each haplotype.
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RSOS140255F3: Geographical association of COI haplotypes. Each pie represents the haplotypes found in that cluster and the area of the pie is proportional to sample size. Clusters have been assigned letters and haplotypes numbered. See included table for the number of individuals displaying each haplotype.

Mentions: A haplotype network was constructed from the 377 aligned COI mitochondrial gene regions (figure 2). In total, there were 22 polymorphic sites, representing 20 distinct haplotypes. Five haplotypes were present in the Wyndham region, seven in Melton, six in Hume–Whittlesea and 10 in Cardinia. There was a common ‘central’ haplotype present (haplotype 1), representing 167 of the 377 samples. All observed haplotypes were a maximum of four mutational steps away from this central haplotype, except one sample from the Wyndham region, which was eight mutational steps away (haplotype 20). One haplotype was unique to the Wyndham region (haplotype 20), two Melton haplotypes were unique (haplotypes 13 and 14), two haplotypes were unique to Hume–Whittlesea (haplotypes 8 and 10) and 10 haplotypes were unique to Cardinia (all the haplotypes observed for the area: haplotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 18 and 19). Two additional haplotypes (haplotypes 9 and 17) were shared by individuals from Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea. One haplotype (haplotype 16) was shared by individuals in Wyndham and Melton, and one haplotype (haplotype 5) was shared by individuals in Melton and Hume–Whittlesea. We also examined the COI haplotype composition of each cluster of sites (figure 3). The central haplotype (haplotype 1) was present in each of the three site clusters from Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea (clusters A–I). Patterns of haplotype diversity and exchange between site clusters were also similar in Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea.Figure 2.


Genetic structure and diversity of the endangered growling grass frog in a rapidly urbanizing region.

Keely CC, Hale JM, Heard GW, Parris KM, Sumner J, Hamer AJ, Melville J - R Soc Open Sci (2015)

Geographical association of COI haplotypes. Each pie represents the haplotypes found in that cluster and the area of the pie is proportional to sample size. Clusters have been assigned letters and haplotypes numbered. See included table for the number of individuals displaying each haplotype.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555848&req=5

RSOS140255F3: Geographical association of COI haplotypes. Each pie represents the haplotypes found in that cluster and the area of the pie is proportional to sample size. Clusters have been assigned letters and haplotypes numbered. See included table for the number of individuals displaying each haplotype.
Mentions: A haplotype network was constructed from the 377 aligned COI mitochondrial gene regions (figure 2). In total, there were 22 polymorphic sites, representing 20 distinct haplotypes. Five haplotypes were present in the Wyndham region, seven in Melton, six in Hume–Whittlesea and 10 in Cardinia. There was a common ‘central’ haplotype present (haplotype 1), representing 167 of the 377 samples. All observed haplotypes were a maximum of four mutational steps away from this central haplotype, except one sample from the Wyndham region, which was eight mutational steps away (haplotype 20). One haplotype was unique to the Wyndham region (haplotype 20), two Melton haplotypes were unique (haplotypes 13 and 14), two haplotypes were unique to Hume–Whittlesea (haplotypes 8 and 10) and 10 haplotypes were unique to Cardinia (all the haplotypes observed for the area: haplotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 18 and 19). Two additional haplotypes (haplotypes 9 and 17) were shared by individuals from Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea. One haplotype (haplotype 16) was shared by individuals in Wyndham and Melton, and one haplotype (haplotype 5) was shared by individuals in Melton and Hume–Whittlesea. We also examined the COI haplotype composition of each cluster of sites (figure 3). The central haplotype (haplotype 1) was present in each of the three site clusters from Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea (clusters A–I). Patterns of haplotype diversity and exchange between site clusters were also similar in Wyndham, Melton and Hume–Whittlesea.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: From a genetic perspective, these impacts manifest as reduced genetic diversity and ultimately reduced genetic viability.The mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences revealed low levels of genetic diversity throughout remnant populations of L. raniformis.We discuss the implications of these results for the conservation of L. raniformis in urbanizing landscapes, particularly the potential risks and benefits of translocation, which remains a contentious management approach for this species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of BioSciences , University of Melbourne , Parkville 3010, Australia ; Sciences Department , Museum Victoria , Carlton 3053, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Two pervasive and fundamental impacts of urbanization are the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. From a genetic perspective, these impacts manifest as reduced genetic diversity and ultimately reduced genetic viability. The growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis) is listed as vulnerable to extinction in Australia, and endangered in the state of Victoria. Remaining populations of this species in and around the city of Melbourne are threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation due to urban expansion. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellites to study the genetic structure and diversity of L. raniformis across Melbourne's urban fringe, and also screened four nuclear gene regions (POMC, RAG-1, Rhod and CRYBA1). The mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences revealed low levels of genetic diversity throughout remnant populations of L. raniformis. However, one of the four regions studied, Cardinia, exhibited relatively high genetic diversity and several unique haplotypes, suggesting this region should be recognized as a separate Management Unit. We discuss the implications of these results for the conservation of L. raniformis in urbanizing landscapes, particularly the potential risks and benefits of translocation, which remains a contentious management approach for this species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus