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Concentrating on the mitotic spindle.

Maddox PS, Ladouceur AM - J. Cell Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: In eukaryotes, the microtubule-based spindle drives chromosome segregation.In this issue, Schweizer et al. (2015; J.Their results add an important new feature to the models of how this structure assembles and is regulated.

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Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 pmaddox@unc.edu.

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Molecular crowding in the mitotic spindle. Schematic view of how a spindle envelope could mitigate spindle size scaling during development (A) or cell cycle control (B) in a common cytoplasm. (A) A spindle envelope (black dotted line) that excludes large membrane-bound organelles (yellow) could locally increase the concentration of spindle proteins (depicted as a red background) such as tubulin to control spindle size independent of cell size during early development. (B) Neighboring nuclei in a common cytoplasm (e.g., the syncytial mitotic gonad in C. elegans) could have differing mitotic states by restricting the diffusion of important regulatory proteins such as Mad2 (similar coloring as in A).
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fig1: Molecular crowding in the mitotic spindle. Schematic view of how a spindle envelope could mitigate spindle size scaling during development (A) or cell cycle control (B) in a common cytoplasm. (A) A spindle envelope (black dotted line) that excludes large membrane-bound organelles (yellow) could locally increase the concentration of spindle proteins (depicted as a red background) such as tubulin to control spindle size independent of cell size during early development. (B) Neighboring nuclei in a common cytoplasm (e.g., the syncytial mitotic gonad in C. elegans) could have differing mitotic states by restricting the diffusion of important regulatory proteins such as Mad2 (similar coloring as in A).

Mentions: The mitotic spindle is known to scale with cell size: smaller cells have smaller spindles (Levy and Heald, 2012). Spindle size scaling is prominent during development when repeated cell division without embryonic growth results in cells that can be several orders of magnitude smaller than that of the zygote. Recently, cytoplasm volume and tubulin concentration was shown to be an important factor in spindle size scaling; however, a curious exception to the size scaling rule is that there seems to be an upper limit to spindle size, resulting in stable spindle size when a threshold cell size is reached (Wühr et al., 2008; Good et al., 2013; Hazel et al., 2013). A spindle envelope would provide mechanisms to maintain increased local tubulin concentration independent of the absolute amount available in the cell. The net effect would be that spindle size scales in very large cells to the spindle envelope size rather than cell size in a manner analogous to chromosome size scaling to nuclear size independently of cell size (Fig. 1 A). Clearly this is a more complex problem and factors such as tubulin protein production and polymerization cofactors (such as the Tog family of proteins) clearly play an important role (Slep, 2009). However, spindle envelope–based molecular crowding could provide an elegant solution to a biochemical problem.


Concentrating on the mitotic spindle.

Maddox PS, Ladouceur AM - J. Cell Biol. (2015)

Molecular crowding in the mitotic spindle. Schematic view of how a spindle envelope could mitigate spindle size scaling during development (A) or cell cycle control (B) in a common cytoplasm. (A) A spindle envelope (black dotted line) that excludes large membrane-bound organelles (yellow) could locally increase the concentration of spindle proteins (depicted as a red background) such as tubulin to control spindle size independent of cell size during early development. (B) Neighboring nuclei in a common cytoplasm (e.g., the syncytial mitotic gonad in C. elegans) could have differing mitotic states by restricting the diffusion of important regulatory proteins such as Mad2 (similar coloring as in A).
© Copyright Policy - openaccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555814&req=5

fig1: Molecular crowding in the mitotic spindle. Schematic view of how a spindle envelope could mitigate spindle size scaling during development (A) or cell cycle control (B) in a common cytoplasm. (A) A spindle envelope (black dotted line) that excludes large membrane-bound organelles (yellow) could locally increase the concentration of spindle proteins (depicted as a red background) such as tubulin to control spindle size independent of cell size during early development. (B) Neighboring nuclei in a common cytoplasm (e.g., the syncytial mitotic gonad in C. elegans) could have differing mitotic states by restricting the diffusion of important regulatory proteins such as Mad2 (similar coloring as in A).
Mentions: The mitotic spindle is known to scale with cell size: smaller cells have smaller spindles (Levy and Heald, 2012). Spindle size scaling is prominent during development when repeated cell division without embryonic growth results in cells that can be several orders of magnitude smaller than that of the zygote. Recently, cytoplasm volume and tubulin concentration was shown to be an important factor in spindle size scaling; however, a curious exception to the size scaling rule is that there seems to be an upper limit to spindle size, resulting in stable spindle size when a threshold cell size is reached (Wühr et al., 2008; Good et al., 2013; Hazel et al., 2013). A spindle envelope would provide mechanisms to maintain increased local tubulin concentration independent of the absolute amount available in the cell. The net effect would be that spindle size scales in very large cells to the spindle envelope size rather than cell size in a manner analogous to chromosome size scaling to nuclear size independently of cell size (Fig. 1 A). Clearly this is a more complex problem and factors such as tubulin protein production and polymerization cofactors (such as the Tog family of proteins) clearly play an important role (Slep, 2009). However, spindle envelope–based molecular crowding could provide an elegant solution to a biochemical problem.

Bottom Line: In eukaryotes, the microtubule-based spindle drives chromosome segregation.In this issue, Schweizer et al. (2015; J.Their results add an important new feature to the models of how this structure assembles and is regulated.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 pmaddox@unc.edu.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus