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Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlations of transcript levels among genes, between genes and C or N levels and between genes and flavonoid content (anthocyanin, Ant; flavone, Fle; and flavonol, Fll). The red line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), the magenta line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05), the blue line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), and the green line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05). The relationships are shown for leaves of ‘Royalty’ (A), ‘Prairifire’ (B), and ‘Flame’ (C) cultivars, and for calli of crabapple Malus sp.; specifically pyknotic (D), medial (E), and porous (F) calli.
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Figure 5: Correlations of transcript levels among genes, between genes and C or N levels and between genes and flavonoid content (anthocyanin, Ant; flavone, Fle; and flavonol, Fll). The red line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), the magenta line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05), the blue line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), and the green line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05). The relationships are shown for leaves of ‘Royalty’ (A), ‘Prairifire’ (B), and ‘Flame’ (C) cultivars, and for calli of crabapple Malus sp.; specifically pyknotic (D), medial (E), and porous (F) calli.

Mentions: To identify which factors significantly influenced anthocyanin accumulation in response to the varying C or N conditions, a correlation analysis was conducted incorporating flavonoid contents, expression levels of relative genes and the variable C/N conditions (Figure 5). We determined that C content was positively related to the expression levels of MYB10 in the leaves of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’; however, this relationship was not significant in the leaves of ‘Prairifire’ and the calli of ‘Spring Snow.’ Meanwhile, N had a significant negative correlation with the expression levels of both regulatory and structural genes in all tested samples, except in the leaves of ‘Prairifire.’ Consistently, when the influence of C/N regimes became significant, stronger correlations emerged between the genes and flavonoid content (Figures 5A–F).


Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Correlations of transcript levels among genes, between genes and C or N levels and between genes and flavonoid content (anthocyanin, Ant; flavone, Fle; and flavonol, Fll). The red line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), the magenta line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05), the blue line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), and the green line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05). The relationships are shown for leaves of ‘Royalty’ (A), ‘Prairifire’ (B), and ‘Flame’ (C) cultivars, and for calli of crabapple Malus sp.; specifically pyknotic (D), medial (E), and porous (F) calli.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555657&req=5

Figure 5: Correlations of transcript levels among genes, between genes and C or N levels and between genes and flavonoid content (anthocyanin, Ant; flavone, Fle; and flavonol, Fll). The red line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), the magenta line indicates a positive correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05), the blue line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.01), and the green line shows negative correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < 0.05). The relationships are shown for leaves of ‘Royalty’ (A), ‘Prairifire’ (B), and ‘Flame’ (C) cultivars, and for calli of crabapple Malus sp.; specifically pyknotic (D), medial (E), and porous (F) calli.
Mentions: To identify which factors significantly influenced anthocyanin accumulation in response to the varying C or N conditions, a correlation analysis was conducted incorporating flavonoid contents, expression levels of relative genes and the variable C/N conditions (Figure 5). We determined that C content was positively related to the expression levels of MYB10 in the leaves of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame’; however, this relationship was not significant in the leaves of ‘Prairifire’ and the calli of ‘Spring Snow.’ Meanwhile, N had a significant negative correlation with the expression levels of both regulatory and structural genes in all tested samples, except in the leaves of ‘Prairifire.’ Consistently, when the influence of C/N regimes became significant, stronger correlations emerged between the genes and flavonoid content (Figures 5A–F).

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus