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Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

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Relative expression profiles of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in leaves (A) and calli (B) of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars grown under various C/N conditions. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression levels of MYB10, CHS, F3H, F3’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, and FLS. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Samples referred to on the x axis: (1) 30C/60N, (2) 90C/60N, (3) 150C/60N, (4) 90C/100N, and (5) 90C/20N. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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Figure 4: Relative expression profiles of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in leaves (A) and calli (B) of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars grown under various C/N conditions. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression levels of MYB10, CHS, F3H, F3’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, and FLS. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Samples referred to on the x axis: (1) 30C/60N, (2) 90C/60N, (3) 150C/60N, (4) 90C/100N, and (5) 90C/20N. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.

Mentions: In the leaves of three cultivars, MYB10 expression levels were substantially increased by high C/N ratios (150C/60N or 90C/20N), an increase that applied to all the genes tested, from CHS through to UFGT and FLS (Figure 4A), suggesting a coordinated up-regulation of the entire biosynthetic pathway. Under 150C/60N conditions, a much higher fold transcription change of CHS, F3H, F3′H, UFGT was observed for the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire’ compared to the ever-red leaf cultivar ‘Royalty’ and the ever-green leaf cultivar ‘Flame’ (Figure 4A). The expression levels of FLS exhibited a lower fold increase in ‘Prairifire’ than in ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame.’ The expression levels of ANS and UFGT increased most in leaves under high C/N conditions (150C/60N or 90C/20N), matching the observed accumulation of anthocyanin and the pigmentation phenotype of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Prairifire.’ However, transcript levels of genes in the early part of the flavonoid synthesis pathway (CHS, F3H, and F3′H) were lower in the ever-red leaf cultivar ‘Royalty’ than in the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire.’


Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Relative expression profiles of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in leaves (A) and calli (B) of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars grown under various C/N conditions. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression levels of MYB10, CHS, F3H, F3’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, and FLS. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Samples referred to on the x axis: (1) 30C/60N, (2) 90C/60N, (3) 150C/60N, (4) 90C/100N, and (5) 90C/20N. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555657&req=5

Figure 4: Relative expression profiles of flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in leaves (A) and calli (B) of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars grown under various C/N conditions. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression levels of MYB10, CHS, F3H, F3’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, and FLS. All real time-PCR reactions were normalized using the Ct value corresponding to a Malus crabapple 18S ribosomal RNA gene (DQ341382). Samples referred to on the x axis: (1) 30C/60N, (2) 90C/60N, (3) 150C/60N, (4) 90C/100N, and (5) 90C/20N. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
Mentions: In the leaves of three cultivars, MYB10 expression levels were substantially increased by high C/N ratios (150C/60N or 90C/20N), an increase that applied to all the genes tested, from CHS through to UFGT and FLS (Figure 4A), suggesting a coordinated up-regulation of the entire biosynthetic pathway. Under 150C/60N conditions, a much higher fold transcription change of CHS, F3H, F3′H, UFGT was observed for the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire’ compared to the ever-red leaf cultivar ‘Royalty’ and the ever-green leaf cultivar ‘Flame’ (Figure 4A). The expression levels of FLS exhibited a lower fold increase in ‘Prairifire’ than in ‘Royalty’ and ‘Flame.’ The expression levels of ANS and UFGT increased most in leaves under high C/N conditions (150C/60N or 90C/20N), matching the observed accumulation of anthocyanin and the pigmentation phenotype of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Prairifire.’ However, transcript levels of genes in the early part of the flavonoid synthesis pathway (CHS, F3H, and F3′H) were lower in the ever-red leaf cultivar ‘Royalty’ than in the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire.’

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus