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Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

High C/N ratios (both high C/normal N and normal C/high N) increase the accumulation of anthocyanins, flavones, and flavonols in leaves of the crabapple Malus sp. cultivars ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame.’ (A) Typical leaf phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. (B) Color parameters a* in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. Contents of anthocyanins (C), flavones (D), and flavonols (E) in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only detectable anthocyanin and flavone were cyanidin and apigenin, respectively. Three flavonols were detected: kaempferol, rutin, and quercetin. The sum of the three components represented total flavonol content. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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Figure 2: High C/N ratios (both high C/normal N and normal C/high N) increase the accumulation of anthocyanins, flavones, and flavonols in leaves of the crabapple Malus sp. cultivars ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame.’ (A) Typical leaf phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. (B) Color parameters a* in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. Contents of anthocyanins (C), flavones (D), and flavonols (E) in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only detectable anthocyanin and flavone were cyanidin and apigenin, respectively. Three flavonols were detected: kaempferol, rutin, and quercetin. The sum of the three components represented total flavonol content. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.

Mentions: The anthocyanin pigmentation phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ under various C/N conditions are shown in Figure 2A. When plantlets of the ever-red cultivar ‘Royalty’ were cultured on media containing high C/normal N (150C/60N, 210C/60N, or 270C/60N) or normal C/low N (90C/40N or 90C/20N), anthocyanin pigmentation was observed, in the form of red pigmentation visible in the leaves (Figure 2A). Similarly, plantlets of the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire’ grown under high C/normal N (150C/60N, 210C/60N, or 270C/60N) or normal C/low N (90C/40N or 90C/20N) conditions displayed a faint-red color at the leaf tips or along the leaf margins (Figure 2A). The pigmentation intensity of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Prairifire’ both increased as C increased or N decreased, whereas the red pigmentation of ‘Royalty’ was always darker than that of ‘Prairifire’ under all C/N conditions. In contrast, plantlets of the ever-green leaf cultivar ‘Flame’ did not develop any anthocyanin pigmentation under any of the C/N regimes, and remained different degrees of green (Figure 2A).


Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

High C/N ratios (both high C/normal N and normal C/high N) increase the accumulation of anthocyanins, flavones, and flavonols in leaves of the crabapple Malus sp. cultivars ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame.’ (A) Typical leaf phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. (B) Color parameters a* in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. Contents of anthocyanins (C), flavones (D), and flavonols (E) in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only detectable anthocyanin and flavone were cyanidin and apigenin, respectively. Three flavonols were detected: kaempferol, rutin, and quercetin. The sum of the three components represented total flavonol content. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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Figure 2: High C/N ratios (both high C/normal N and normal C/high N) increase the accumulation of anthocyanins, flavones, and flavonols in leaves of the crabapple Malus sp. cultivars ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame.’ (A) Typical leaf phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. (B) Color parameters a* in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions. Contents of anthocyanins (C), flavones (D), and flavonols (E) in leaves of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ grown under various C/N conditions, measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The only detectable anthocyanin and flavone were cyanidin and apigenin, respectively. Three flavonols were detected: kaempferol, rutin, and quercetin. The sum of the three components represented total flavonol content. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way ANOVA followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
Mentions: The anthocyanin pigmentation phenotypes of ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ under various C/N conditions are shown in Figure 2A. When plantlets of the ever-red cultivar ‘Royalty’ were cultured on media containing high C/normal N (150C/60N, 210C/60N, or 270C/60N) or normal C/low N (90C/40N or 90C/20N), anthocyanin pigmentation was observed, in the form of red pigmentation visible in the leaves (Figure 2A). Similarly, plantlets of the spring-red leaf cultivar ‘Prairifire’ grown under high C/normal N (150C/60N, 210C/60N, or 270C/60N) or normal C/low N (90C/40N or 90C/20N) conditions displayed a faint-red color at the leaf tips or along the leaf margins (Figure 2A). The pigmentation intensity of ‘Royalty’ and ‘Prairifire’ both increased as C increased or N decreased, whereas the red pigmentation of ‘Royalty’ was always darker than that of ‘Prairifire’ under all C/N conditions. In contrast, plantlets of the ever-green leaf cultivar ‘Flame’ did not develop any anthocyanin pigmentation under any of the C/N regimes, and remained different degrees of green (Figure 2A).

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus