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Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

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Effects of C and N nutrient balance on the growth of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars. (A) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment, shoot height, and proliferation rate of the plantlets of the ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars. Plantlets were grown on MS media with 6-BA and NAA, varying C/N levels and harvested on day 30. (B) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment of the pyknotic calli, medial calli, and porous calli induced from ‘Spring Snow.’ Calli were grown on the MS media with 6-BA, NAA, or 2,4-D, varying the C/N ratios. Pyknotic and medial calli were harvested on day 30, and porous calli on day 15. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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Figure 1: Effects of C and N nutrient balance on the growth of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars. (A) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment, shoot height, and proliferation rate of the plantlets of the ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars. Plantlets were grown on MS media with 6-BA and NAA, varying C/N levels and harvested on day 30. (B) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment of the pyknotic calli, medial calli, and porous calli induced from ‘Spring Snow.’ Calli were grown on the MS media with 6-BA, NAA, or 2,4-D, varying the C/N ratios. Pyknotic and medial calli were harvested on day 30, and porous calli on day 15. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.

Mentions: With respect to the plantlets, in media with 60N, increasing C from 30 to 270 mM led to an increase in FW for ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame,’ with the highest FW increment at 270, 150, and 270 mM, respectively (Figure 1A). In contrast, the shoot height of the three crabapple cultivars was markedly reduced as C increased (Figure 1A). The proliferation rate of ‘Royalty’ increased from 2.47 to 6.64 as C increased from 30 to 270 mM at a constant N level (60 mM), and that of ‘Prairifire’ and ‘Flame’ increased from 2.21 to 5.33, and from 2.21 to 6.67, respectively (Figure 1A). When N decreased from 100 to 20 mM while C was kept constant (90 mM), the FW increment, the shoot height and proliferation rates of the plantlets of three cultivars all increased at first and then declined (Figure 1A). We concluded that a suitable high C concentration yielded an increase in FW, a reduction in shoot height and amplified the proliferation rate of crabapple plantlets to different degrees under certain N concentrations.


Promotion of flavonoid biosynthesis in leaves and calli of ornamental crabapple (Malus sp.) by high carbon to nitrogen ratios.

Wan H, Zhang J, Song T, Tian J, Yao Y - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Effects of C and N nutrient balance on the growth of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars. (A) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment, shoot height, and proliferation rate of the plantlets of the ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars. Plantlets were grown on MS media with 6-BA and NAA, varying C/N levels and harvested on day 30. (B) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment of the pyknotic calli, medial calli, and porous calli induced from ‘Spring Snow.’ Calli were grown on the MS media with 6-BA, NAA, or 2,4-D, varying the C/N ratios. Pyknotic and medial calli were harvested on day 30, and porous calli on day 15. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555657&req=5

Figure 1: Effects of C and N nutrient balance on the growth of crabapple Malus sp. cultivars. (A) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment, shoot height, and proliferation rate of the plantlets of the ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame’ cultivars. Plantlets were grown on MS media with 6-BA and NAA, varying C/N levels and harvested on day 30. (B) Effects of C/N ratios on the FW increment of the pyknotic calli, medial calli, and porous calli induced from ‘Spring Snow.’ Calli were grown on the MS media with 6-BA, NAA, or 2,4-D, varying the C/N ratios. Pyknotic and medial calli were harvested on day 30, and porous calli on day 15. Tr1–Tr8 correspond to 30C/60N, 90C/60N, 150C/60N, 210C/60N, 270C/60N, 90C/100N, 90C/40N, and 90C/20N, respectively. Error bars correspond to the SEM ± SE of three replicate analyses. Different letters above the bars indicate significantly different values (P < 0.05) calculated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Duncan’s multiple range test.
Mentions: With respect to the plantlets, in media with 60N, increasing C from 30 to 270 mM led to an increase in FW for ‘Royalty,’ ‘Prairifire,’ and ‘Flame,’ with the highest FW increment at 270, 150, and 270 mM, respectively (Figure 1A). In contrast, the shoot height of the three crabapple cultivars was markedly reduced as C increased (Figure 1A). The proliferation rate of ‘Royalty’ increased from 2.47 to 6.64 as C increased from 30 to 270 mM at a constant N level (60 mM), and that of ‘Prairifire’ and ‘Flame’ increased from 2.21 to 5.33, and from 2.21 to 6.67, respectively (Figure 1A). When N decreased from 100 to 20 mM while C was kept constant (90 mM), the FW increment, the shoot height and proliferation rates of the plantlets of three cultivars all increased at first and then declined (Figure 1A). We concluded that a suitable high C concentration yielded an increase in FW, a reduction in shoot height and amplified the proliferation rate of crabapple plantlets to different degrees under certain N concentrations.

Bottom Line: Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear.In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars.These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Science and Technology, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China ; Key Laboratory of New Technology in Agricultural Application of Beijing, Beijing University of Agriculture Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play important roles in plant physiology. Despite numerous studies examined the effects of available carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) on flavonoid biosynthesis, the mechanism of C/N interactive effects on flavonoid metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the composition of flavonoids and the expression levels of flavonoid-related genes in leaves and calli of crabapple (Malus sp.) cultivars with different leaf colors grown on media with different C/N ratios. Our results show that high C/N ratios induce anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves of the ever-red cultivar 'Royalty' and the spring-red cultivar 'Prairifire,' as well as in three types of calli derived from the ever-green cultivar 'Spring Snow,' but not in the leaves of the ever-green cultivar 'Flame.' This phenomenon therefore correlated with anthocyanin content in these different samples. In addition, high C/N ratios in the growth media resulted in an increase in the concentration of flavones and flavonols in the leaves of the three crabapple cultivars. The transcript levels of the general flavonoid pathway genes [from chalcone synthase (CHS) to uridine diphosphat-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT) and flavonol synthase (FLS)] increased in response to high C/N ratios, and this in turn was correlated with the concentration of anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols in the leaves and calli. Expression of the late flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UFGT and FLS in particular, was more strongly influenced by C/N ratios than other structural genes, and the increased expression of the structural genes under high C/N ratios coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a MYB transcription factor, MYB10. These results are likely to be useful for future generation of plants with an optimized flavonoid/anthocyanin content or desirable organ coloration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus