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Surgically Relevant Bony and Soft Tissue Anatomy of the Proximal Femur.

Philippon MJ, Michalski MP, Campbell KJ, Goldsmith MT, Devitt BM, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF - Orthop J Sports Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter.The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur.The qualitative and quantitative clinically relevant anatomic data presented here will aid in the diagnosis of proximal femur pathology and will provide a template for anatomic repair or reconstruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA. ; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hip endoscopy facilitates the treatment of extra-articular disorders of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, current knowledge of proximal femur anatomy is limited to qualitative descriptions and lacks surgically relevant landmarks.

Purpose: To provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proximal femur anatomy in reference to surgically relevant bony landmarks.

Study design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: Fourteen cadaveric hemipelvises were dissected. A coordinate measuring device measured dimensions and interrelationships of the gluteal muscles, hip external rotators, pectineus, iliopsoas, and joint capsule in reference to osseous landmarks.

Results: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and femoral head-neck junction were distinct and reliable osseous landmarks. The anteroinferior tip of the vastus tubercle was 17.1 mm (95% CI: 14.5, 19.8 mm) anteroinferior to the center of the gluteus medius lateral insertional footprint and was 22.9 mm (95% CI: 20.1, 25.7 mm) inferolateral to the center of the gluteus minimus insertional footprint. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter. The relationship of the aforementioned footprints were 49% (95% CI: 43%, 54%), 42% (95% CI: 33%, 50%), and 64% (95% CI: 59%, 69%) from the anterior (0%) to posterior (100%) margins of the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, respectively. The hip joint capsule attached distally on the proximal femur 18.2 mm (95% CI: 14.2, 22.2 mm) from the head-neck junction medially on average.

Conclusion: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur. Knowledge of the interrelationships between these structures is essential for endoscopic navigation and anatomic surgical repair and reconstruction.

Clinical relevance: The qualitative and quantitative clinically relevant anatomic data presented here will aid in the diagnosis of proximal femur pathology and will provide a template for anatomic repair or reconstruction.

No MeSH data available.


(Left) Illustration and (right) photograph of superior view looking inferiorly at the femoral head, femoral neck, and greater trochanter of a right hip. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus with respect to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter are depicted.
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fig4-2325967114535188: (Left) Illustration and (right) photograph of superior view looking inferiorly at the femoral head, femoral neck, and greater trochanter of a right hip. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus with respect to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter are depicted.

Mentions: A coordinate measuring device (MicroScribe MX; GoMeasure3D, Amherst, Virginia, USA) with a previously reported13 accuracy of 0.113 mm was used with a needle-point tip to collect anatomical locations. Data points were collected circumferentially along the inner border of the aforementioned India ink footprint outline. Data points were also taken along the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, the intertrochanteric crest, the head-neck junction of the femur, and along the vastus tubercle (Figures 3 and 4). The same individual performed the data collection for all specimens.


Surgically Relevant Bony and Soft Tissue Anatomy of the Proximal Femur.

Philippon MJ, Michalski MP, Campbell KJ, Goldsmith MT, Devitt BM, Wijdicks CA, LaPrade RF - Orthop J Sports Med (2014)

(Left) Illustration and (right) photograph of superior view looking inferiorly at the femoral head, femoral neck, and greater trochanter of a right hip. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus with respect to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter are depicted.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555602&req=5

fig4-2325967114535188: (Left) Illustration and (right) photograph of superior view looking inferiorly at the femoral head, femoral neck, and greater trochanter of a right hip. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus with respect to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter are depicted.
Mentions: A coordinate measuring device (MicroScribe MX; GoMeasure3D, Amherst, Virginia, USA) with a previously reported13 accuracy of 0.113 mm was used with a needle-point tip to collect anatomical locations. Data points were collected circumferentially along the inner border of the aforementioned India ink footprint outline. Data points were also taken along the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, the intertrochanteric crest, the head-neck junction of the femur, and along the vastus tubercle (Figures 3 and 4). The same individual performed the data collection for all specimens.

Bottom Line: The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter.The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur.The qualitative and quantitative clinically relevant anatomic data presented here will aid in the diagnosis of proximal femur pathology and will provide a template for anatomic repair or reconstruction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA. ; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hip endoscopy facilitates the treatment of extra-articular disorders of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, current knowledge of proximal femur anatomy is limited to qualitative descriptions and lacks surgically relevant landmarks.

Purpose: To provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proximal femur anatomy in reference to surgically relevant bony landmarks.

Study design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: Fourteen cadaveric hemipelvises were dissected. A coordinate measuring device measured dimensions and interrelationships of the gluteal muscles, hip external rotators, pectineus, iliopsoas, and joint capsule in reference to osseous landmarks.

Results: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and femoral head-neck junction were distinct and reliable osseous landmarks. The anteroinferior tip of the vastus tubercle was 17.1 mm (95% CI: 14.5, 19.8 mm) anteroinferior to the center of the gluteus medius lateral insertional footprint and was 22.9 mm (95% CI: 20.1, 25.7 mm) inferolateral to the center of the gluteus minimus insertional footprint. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter. The relationship of the aforementioned footprints were 49% (95% CI: 43%, 54%), 42% (95% CI: 33%, 50%), and 64% (95% CI: 59%, 69%) from the anterior (0%) to posterior (100%) margins of the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, respectively. The hip joint capsule attached distally on the proximal femur 18.2 mm (95% CI: 14.2, 22.2 mm) from the head-neck junction medially on average.

Conclusion: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur. Knowledge of the interrelationships between these structures is essential for endoscopic navigation and anatomic surgical repair and reconstruction.

Clinical relevance: The qualitative and quantitative clinically relevant anatomic data presented here will aid in the diagnosis of proximal femur pathology and will provide a template for anatomic repair or reconstruction.

No MeSH data available.