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Predictors of Running-Related Injuries Among 930 Novice Runners: A 1-Year Prospective Follow-up Study.

Nielsen RO, Buist I, Parner ET, Nohr EA, Sørensen H, Lind M, Rasmussen S - Orthop J Sports Med (2013)

Bottom Line: All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe.In addition, χ(2) test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06).No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury (P = .47), running experience (P = .30), and other sports activities (P = .30).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Section of Sport Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. ; Orthopaedic Surgery Research Unit, Science and Innovation Center, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: To identify persons at high risk of sustaining running-related injuries, an evidence-based understanding of the risk factors associated with injury is needed.

Purpose: To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with running-related injuries.

Study design: Observational prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up.

Methods: Exposures including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), behavior (Type A Self-Rating Inventory [TASRI]), running experience, other sports activity, previous running-related injuries, and other injuries not related to running were assessed prior to or at baseline. The outcome of interest was a running-related injury, defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running that restricted the amount of running (volume, duration, pace, or frequency) for at least 1 week. All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe. Time to first injury for each exposure variable was analyzed using a generalized linear model, with cumulative kilometers of the training sessions as the time scale.

Results: A total of 930 individuals were included in the study, of which 254 sustained a running-related injury during a total of 155.318 km of running. By calculating the cumulative injury risk differences (cIRDs) [95% confidence intervals] after 500 km of running, the TASRI Type B behavior (cIRD, 11.9% [-0.5%; 23.3%]; P = .04) was found to be a significant predictor of injury, while age between 45 and 65 years (cIRD, 14.7% [-2.1%; 31.5%]; P = .08) and previous injuries not related to running (cIRD, 11.1% [-0.2%; 22.4%]; P = .05) were considered clinically interesting, although not statistically significant. In addition, χ(2) test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06). No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury (P = .47), running experience (P = .30), and other sports activities (P = .30).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest BMI >30 kg/m(2), age between 45 and 65 years, noncompetitive behavior, and previous injuries not related to running are associated with increased risk of injury among novice runners, while BMI <20 kg/m(2) was protective. Still, the role of the risk factors in the causal mechanism leading to injury needs to be investigated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Kaplan-Meier survival graphs for (A) previous running-related injury dichotomized into yes/no; (B) previous injuries not related to running dichotomized into yes/no; (C) sex dichotomized into female/male; (D) behavior measured by Type A Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI) dichotomized into <120 (type B: relaxed, laid-back personality) and >120 (type A: competitive, impatient, hyperactive personality); (E) age categorized into 18-30, 30-45, and 45-65 years; (F) sports activity categorized into no, yes—sports activity with axial load, and yes—sports activity without axial load; (G) body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized into <20, 20-25, 25-30, and >30; and (H) previous running experience dichotomized into yes/no. All exposures were assessed prior to or at baseline of 0 kilometers at risk. RRI, running-related injury.
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fig1-2325967113487316: Kaplan-Meier survival graphs for (A) previous running-related injury dichotomized into yes/no; (B) previous injuries not related to running dichotomized into yes/no; (C) sex dichotomized into female/male; (D) behavior measured by Type A Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI) dichotomized into <120 (type B: relaxed, laid-back personality) and >120 (type A: competitive, impatient, hyperactive personality); (E) age categorized into 18-30, 30-45, and 45-65 years; (F) sports activity categorized into no, yes—sports activity with axial load, and yes—sports activity without axial load; (G) body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized into <20, 20-25, 25-30, and >30; and (H) previous running experience dichotomized into yes/no. All exposures were assessed prior to or at baseline of 0 kilometers at risk. RRI, running-related injury.

Mentions: During follow-up, the participants ran a total volume of 155.318 km. Of the 676 persons not sustaining an RRI, 197 were censored before the end of follow-up for reasons including too much training uploaded without the GPS watch (n = 59), lack of motivation (n = 37), pregnancies (n = 25), and other reasons (n = 76). The crude cIRD between exposures of interest and RRI are presented in Table 2, and the Kaplan-Meier survival graphs in Figure 1.


Predictors of Running-Related Injuries Among 930 Novice Runners: A 1-Year Prospective Follow-up Study.

Nielsen RO, Buist I, Parner ET, Nohr EA, Sørensen H, Lind M, Rasmussen S - Orthop J Sports Med (2013)

Kaplan-Meier survival graphs for (A) previous running-related injury dichotomized into yes/no; (B) previous injuries not related to running dichotomized into yes/no; (C) sex dichotomized into female/male; (D) behavior measured by Type A Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI) dichotomized into <120 (type B: relaxed, laid-back personality) and >120 (type A: competitive, impatient, hyperactive personality); (E) age categorized into 18-30, 30-45, and 45-65 years; (F) sports activity categorized into no, yes—sports activity with axial load, and yes—sports activity without axial load; (G) body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized into <20, 20-25, 25-30, and >30; and (H) previous running experience dichotomized into yes/no. All exposures were assessed prior to or at baseline of 0 kilometers at risk. RRI, running-related injury.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555503&req=5

fig1-2325967113487316: Kaplan-Meier survival graphs for (A) previous running-related injury dichotomized into yes/no; (B) previous injuries not related to running dichotomized into yes/no; (C) sex dichotomized into female/male; (D) behavior measured by Type A Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI) dichotomized into <120 (type B: relaxed, laid-back personality) and >120 (type A: competitive, impatient, hyperactive personality); (E) age categorized into 18-30, 30-45, and 45-65 years; (F) sports activity categorized into no, yes—sports activity with axial load, and yes—sports activity without axial load; (G) body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2 categorized into <20, 20-25, 25-30, and >30; and (H) previous running experience dichotomized into yes/no. All exposures were assessed prior to or at baseline of 0 kilometers at risk. RRI, running-related injury.
Mentions: During follow-up, the participants ran a total volume of 155.318 km. Of the 676 persons not sustaining an RRI, 197 were censored before the end of follow-up for reasons including too much training uploaded without the GPS watch (n = 59), lack of motivation (n = 37), pregnancies (n = 25), and other reasons (n = 76). The crude cIRD between exposures of interest and RRI are presented in Table 2, and the Kaplan-Meier survival graphs in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe.In addition, χ(2) test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06).No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury (P = .47), running experience (P = .30), and other sports activities (P = .30).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Section of Sport Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. ; Orthopaedic Surgery Research Unit, Science and Innovation Center, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

ABSTRACT

Background: To identify persons at high risk of sustaining running-related injuries, an evidence-based understanding of the risk factors associated with injury is needed.

Purpose: To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with running-related injuries.

Study design: Observational prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up.

Methods: Exposures including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), behavior (Type A Self-Rating Inventory [TASRI]), running experience, other sports activity, previous running-related injuries, and other injuries not related to running were assessed prior to or at baseline. The outcome of interest was a running-related injury, defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running that restricted the amount of running (volume, duration, pace, or frequency) for at least 1 week. All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe. Time to first injury for each exposure variable was analyzed using a generalized linear model, with cumulative kilometers of the training sessions as the time scale.

Results: A total of 930 individuals were included in the study, of which 254 sustained a running-related injury during a total of 155.318 km of running. By calculating the cumulative injury risk differences (cIRDs) [95% confidence intervals] after 500 km of running, the TASRI Type B behavior (cIRD, 11.9% [-0.5%; 23.3%]; P = .04) was found to be a significant predictor of injury, while age between 45 and 65 years (cIRD, 14.7% [-2.1%; 31.5%]; P = .08) and previous injuries not related to running (cIRD, 11.1% [-0.2%; 22.4%]; P = .05) were considered clinically interesting, although not statistically significant. In addition, χ(2) test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06). No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury (P = .47), running experience (P = .30), and other sports activities (P = .30).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest BMI >30 kg/m(2), age between 45 and 65 years, noncompetitive behavior, and previous injuries not related to running are associated with increased risk of injury among novice runners, while BMI <20 kg/m(2) was protective. Still, the role of the risk factors in the causal mechanism leading to injury needs to be investigated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus