Limits...
A Biomechanical Evaluation of the Kinetics for Multiple Pitching Techniques in College-Aged Pitchers.

Solomito MJ, Garibay EJ, Õunpuu S, Tate JP, Nissen CW - Orthop J Sports Med (2013)

Bottom Line: The curveball and slider/cutter produce greater moments on the shoulder and elbow compared with the fastball and change-up.Results also indicate that the change-up produced the lowest joint moments compared with other pitch types.However, these results show that pitching breaking pitches may not be as detrimental to a college-aged pitcher as currently believed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: There are a number of studies showing that fastball pitches place greater loads on the shoulder and elbow than the curveball; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent, especially in collegiate-level pitchers. There is also discussion that sliders may produce substantially greater loads than other breaking pitches, but there is little scientific evidence to support this claim.

Hypothesis: The curveball and slider/cutter produce greater moments on the shoulder and elbow compared with the fastball and change-up.

Study design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: Thirty-six collegiate pitchers were evaluated using motion analysis techniques. All subjects pitched a fastball and a change-up, 29 pitched a curveball, and 20 pitched a slider/cutter. Kinematic data were collected, and kinetic (joint moment) data were computed using standard protocols. A random-intercept, mixed-model regression analysis was used to assess differences in joint moments between pitch types.

Results: The greatest glenohumeral and elbow moments were found when pitchers were pitching the fastball (mean ± standard deviation: 80.8 ± 15.5 and 79.2 ± 16.9 N·m, respectively) and the lowest when pitching the change-up (73.2 ± 14.5 and 71.6 ± 15.0 N·m, respectively). The moments produced by the slider/cutter and curveball were similar (74.9 ± 16.4 and 75.6 ± 15.5 N·m at the elbow, respectively) and significantly lower than the moments produced by the fastball (P < .0001). Results also indicate that the change-up produced the lowest joint moments compared with other pitch types.

Conclusion: This study shows that the fastball and not the curveball or slider/cutter produced the greatest moments on the college pitcher's glenohumeral and elbow joints, as previously believed. The study also shows that the change-up may be the safest of the 4 pitch types analyzed.

Clinical relevance: There is a long-held belief that throwing breaking pitches, specifically the slider and curveball, places additional stresses on the shoulder and elbow of skeletally mature pitchers. However, these results show that pitching breaking pitches may not be as detrimental to a college-aged pitcher as currently believed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Marker placement.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555497&req=5

fig1-2325967113508255: Marker placement.

Mentions: Anthropometric measurements, including segment lengths and joint widths, required for the model were obtained prior to analysis. A brief pitching and relevant medical history were also obtained for each participant prior to the pitching analysis. Each subject’s passive shoulder range of motion as well as isokinetic shoulder strength measures were measured and noted; however, the results of these tests are outside the scope of the current work. A total of 38 reflective markers were attached to specific bony landmarks to create a 16-segment biomechanical model as described by Nissen et al9 (Figure 1). The marker placement allowed for estimation of joint centers and tracking of the motion of various body segments throughout the collection space. The joint angles were calculated using Euler equations of motion. All joints, with the exception of the glenohumeral joint, are based on a YXZ rotation sequence (sagittal, coronal, transverse), since this rotation sequence yielded the most physiologically relevant results. The glenohumeral joint uses an XYZ rotation (coronal, sagittal, transverse), again to ensure the kinematic data provide the most physiologically relevant data. A fourth-order zero lag Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 15 Hz was used to smooth the raw maker data used for joint kinematics. An additional 2 markers were placed on the ball to calculate ball speed and joint kinetics. Joint kinetics were calculated using standard inverse dynamic techniques written into custom Matlab code (Mathworks, Natick, Massachusetts, USA). All moments presented in this work are presented as internal moments.


A Biomechanical Evaluation of the Kinetics for Multiple Pitching Techniques in College-Aged Pitchers.

Solomito MJ, Garibay EJ, Õunpuu S, Tate JP, Nissen CW - Orthop J Sports Med (2013)

Marker placement.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4555497&req=5

fig1-2325967113508255: Marker placement.
Mentions: Anthropometric measurements, including segment lengths and joint widths, required for the model were obtained prior to analysis. A brief pitching and relevant medical history were also obtained for each participant prior to the pitching analysis. Each subject’s passive shoulder range of motion as well as isokinetic shoulder strength measures were measured and noted; however, the results of these tests are outside the scope of the current work. A total of 38 reflective markers were attached to specific bony landmarks to create a 16-segment biomechanical model as described by Nissen et al9 (Figure 1). The marker placement allowed for estimation of joint centers and tracking of the motion of various body segments throughout the collection space. The joint angles were calculated using Euler equations of motion. All joints, with the exception of the glenohumeral joint, are based on a YXZ rotation sequence (sagittal, coronal, transverse), since this rotation sequence yielded the most physiologically relevant results. The glenohumeral joint uses an XYZ rotation (coronal, sagittal, transverse), again to ensure the kinematic data provide the most physiologically relevant data. A fourth-order zero lag Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 15 Hz was used to smooth the raw maker data used for joint kinematics. An additional 2 markers were placed on the ball to calculate ball speed and joint kinetics. Joint kinetics were calculated using standard inverse dynamic techniques written into custom Matlab code (Mathworks, Natick, Massachusetts, USA). All moments presented in this work are presented as internal moments.

Bottom Line: The curveball and slider/cutter produce greater moments on the shoulder and elbow compared with the fastball and change-up.Results also indicate that the change-up produced the lowest joint moments compared with other pitch types.However, these results show that pitching breaking pitches may not be as detrimental to a college-aged pitcher as currently believed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: There are a number of studies showing that fastball pitches place greater loads on the shoulder and elbow than the curveball; however, the results of these studies are inconsistent, especially in collegiate-level pitchers. There is also discussion that sliders may produce substantially greater loads than other breaking pitches, but there is little scientific evidence to support this claim.

Hypothesis: The curveball and slider/cutter produce greater moments on the shoulder and elbow compared with the fastball and change-up.

Study design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: Thirty-six collegiate pitchers were evaluated using motion analysis techniques. All subjects pitched a fastball and a change-up, 29 pitched a curveball, and 20 pitched a slider/cutter. Kinematic data were collected, and kinetic (joint moment) data were computed using standard protocols. A random-intercept, mixed-model regression analysis was used to assess differences in joint moments between pitch types.

Results: The greatest glenohumeral and elbow moments were found when pitchers were pitching the fastball (mean ± standard deviation: 80.8 ± 15.5 and 79.2 ± 16.9 N·m, respectively) and the lowest when pitching the change-up (73.2 ± 14.5 and 71.6 ± 15.0 N·m, respectively). The moments produced by the slider/cutter and curveball were similar (74.9 ± 16.4 and 75.6 ± 15.5 N·m at the elbow, respectively) and significantly lower than the moments produced by the fastball (P < .0001). Results also indicate that the change-up produced the lowest joint moments compared with other pitch types.

Conclusion: This study shows that the fastball and not the curveball or slider/cutter produced the greatest moments on the college pitcher's glenohumeral and elbow joints, as previously believed. The study also shows that the change-up may be the safest of the 4 pitch types analyzed.

Clinical relevance: There is a long-held belief that throwing breaking pitches, specifically the slider and curveball, places additional stresses on the shoulder and elbow of skeletally mature pitchers. However, these results show that pitching breaking pitches may not be as detrimental to a college-aged pitcher as currently believed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus